Bio-based Epoxy Resin from Gallic Acid
The bio-based epoxy resins for coating application were synthesized from gallic acid (GA) in various molar ratios with epichlorohydrin (ECH). The reaction was carried out in the presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and phase-transfer catalyst tetrabutylammonium bromide. The reaction progress rate at various molar ratios as 1:8, 1:12, and 1:16 with respect to time was monitored by calculating the epoxy content. The epoxy content value increases in the product as the molar ratio of GA to ECH increases. Epoxy equivalent weight of products was evaluated by physiochemical method and structure illustrated by Fourier transform infrared and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This bio-based epoxy resin was cured with polyamide hardener, and the coating properties such as mechanical, chemical, and solvent resistance were studied. The cured films have been evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermal behavior by a differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The bio-based epoxy coatings show interesting mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties as compared to the conventional epoxy resin. The gel and water absorption of polyamide-cured coatings has also been evaluated.