Application Number: 14989140 Application Date: 06.01.2016
Publication Number: 20170190829 Publication Date: 06.07.2017
Publication Kind : A1
IPC:
C08G 18/62
C08G 18/69
C08G 18/76
Applicants: Fina Technology, Inc.
Inventors: Nan Tian
Herbert Chao
Priority Data:
Title: (EN) POLYOLS DERIVED FROM FARNESENE FOR POLYURETHANES
Abstract:

(EN)

A composition is provided for making a polyurethane that may be incorporated in various products, such as a sealant, a coating, a caulk, an electric potting compound, a membrane, a sponge, a foam, an adhesives, and a propellant binder. The composition includes one or more polyols, one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds having an isocyanate group functionality of at least two, and optionally one or more chain extenders. At least one of the polyols is a farnesene-based polyol having a number average molecular weight less than or equal to 100,000 g/mol and a viscosity at 25° C. less than 10,000 cP. The farnesene-based polyol may be a homopolymer or a copolymer of farnesene. The composition may also comprise additional polyols, such as a polyol of a homopolymer or copolymer of a polydiene. Methods of preparing a polyurethane are also provided.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

      The invention relates to polyurethanes that may be used as insulating glass sealants, electric potting compounds, construction coating/sealants, and water membranes, for example. More specifically, the invention relates to polyurethanes and their compositions that are derived or include polyols derived from farnesene.

BACKGROUND

      It is well known to prepare isocyanate terminated polyurethane prepolymers from polyether and/or polyester polyols and aromatic diisocyanates. Polyurethane prepolymers are formed by combining an excess of diisocyanate with polyol. One of the —NCO groups of a diisocyanate reacts with one of the OH groups of the polyol, and the other end of the polyol reacts with another diisocyanate. The result is a prepolymer having an isocyanate group on both ends. The prepolymer is therefore a diisocyanate itself, but unlike the original diisocyanate, the prepolymer has a greater molecular weight, a higher viscosity, a lower isocyanate content by weight (% NCO), and a lower vapor pressure.
      Furthermore, it is also well known to prepare polyurethane elastomers by chain extending these prepolymers with low molecular weight diols. The resulting polyurethanes have excellent mechanical properties, but are rather hydrophilic, which can limit their utility in certain moisture sensitive applications.
      Hydroxyl terminated polyols with very non-polar backbones (e.g., hydroxyl functional polybutadiene) can be used to introduce hydrophobicity into polyurethane elastomers. However, polyols having a polybutadiene backbone, for example, usually have a much higher viscosity than those based on polyether backbone. To reduce the viscosity of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadienes, one can either blend polyether polyols into the polyol mixture or make prepolymers with increased —NCO percentage. The approach is in general not ideal because the final polyurethane products tend to have inferior hydrophobicity.
      Thus, there is a need for improved polyurethanes having relatively low viscosity for easier application that are hydrophobic for moisture-sensitive applications.

SUMMARY OF T E INVENTION

      According to one embodiment, a composition is provided for making a polyurethane. The composition comprises one or more polyols, one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds having an isocyanate group functionality of at least two, and optionally one or more chain extenders. At least one of the polyols is a farnesene-based polyol having a number average molecular weight less than or equal to 100,000 g/mol, more desirably a number average molecular weight less than or equal to 25,000 g/mol, and a viscosity at 25° C. less than 10,000 cP. The farnesene-based polyol may be a polyol of a farnesene homopolymer or a copolymer of farnesene and, optionally, one or more dienes and/or vinyl aromatics. Examples of dienes include butadiene and isoprene. The chain extender may include one or more monomeric polyols and/or polyamines. The composition may also comprise additional polyols, such as a polyol of a homopolymer or copolymer of a polydiene. The NCO/OH ratio of the composition may be about 2:1 to 1:2.
      According to another embodiment, a method of preparing a polyurethane is provided comprising combining one or more polyols with one or more isocyanate-containing compounds having a isocyanate functionality of at least two, and optionally, a chain extender, to form a mixture and curing the mixture. At least one of the one or more polyols is a farnesene-based polyol. The chain extender may be one or more monomeric polyols and/or polyamines, such as 1,4-butanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, ethylene glycol, 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol (EHD), 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPG), 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (TMPD), 2,4-diethyl-1,5-pentanediol (PD-9), N,N-diisopropanol aniline, dimethylolpropionic acid, hydroquinone dihydroxyethyl ether (HQEE), diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, glycerol, diethyltoluenediamine (DETDA), 4,4′-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBCA), ethylenediamine (EDA), dimethylthiotoluene-diamine (DMTTDA), 4,4′-methylenedianiline (MDA), complex of methylenediamine with NaCl (MDA complex), trimethyleneglycol di-p-aminobenzoate (TMGDAB), 4,4′-methylene-bis(3-chloro-2,6-diethylaniline) (M-CDEA), and N,N′-bis(sec-butyl)methylene-dianiline (SBMDA). The one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds include 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), cyclohexanediisocyanate, p-phenylene diisocyanate, 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate (TDI), p-xylene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate, 4,4′-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate, 1,4-bis(isocyanomethyl)-cyclohexane, p-tetramethylxylene diisocyanate, m-tetramethylxylene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, and combinations thereof.
      According to yet another embodiment, a polyurethane is provided prepared according to the methods disclosed herein. An elastomeric product is also provided comprising the polyurethane that may be in the form of a sealant, a coating, a caulk, an electric potting compound, a membrane, a sponge, a foam, an adhesive, and a propellant binder.
      These and other aspects of the various embodiments of the disclosed methods and compositions will be understood from the following detailed description.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

      According to various embodiments of the disclosed methods and compositions, a farnesene-based polyol is provided, as well as a composition for making a polyurethane comprising a diisocyanate and the farnesene-based polyol. The composition may further include chain extenders, such as monomeric polyols and polyamines. Therefore, as used herein “polyurethane” refers to a polymer containing one or more urethane bonds and may also include one or more urea bonds.
      The farnesene-based polyols according to the disclosed methods and compositions exhibit lower viscosities compared to polydiene-based polyols, such as polybutadiene, of similar molecular weight. Therefore, farnesene-based polyols may be handled favorably in polyurethane formulations and applications without significant dilution with other components. In addition, the farnesene-based polyols can be combined with oligomers based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene and polyisoprene to provide polyol mixtures that may be combined with one or more diisocyanates to form the compositions for making the polyurethanes. The viscosity of polyfarnesene may be controlled by copolymerization with other monomers, such as dienes and vinyl aromatics. Examples include butadiene, isoprene, and styrene. The resulting polyurethanes derived from polyfarnesene polyols, having excellent hydrophobicity, are excellent in a variety of applications, such as insulating glass sealants, caulks, electric potting compounds, construction coating/sealants, water membranes, sponges, foams, adhesives, coatings, propellant binders, encapsulating compounds, as well as other rubber-fabricated materials.
      The farnesene-based polyol may be obtained by polymerizing a monomer feed that primarily includes farnesene followed by hydroxyl-functionalization of the terminal end(s) of the polymer. As used herein “polyol” is an organic compound having more than one hydroxyl group. The farnesene-based polymers have a lower viscosity compared to polybutadienes, but comparable hydrophobicity. Therefore, the polyols may be used to manufacture polyurethanes used in moisture sensitive coating applications, for example, without significant dilution with other additives for the purpose of lowering its viscosity.
      Any methods known by those having skill in the art may be used to polymerize the farnesene monomers. Anionic polymerization may be desirable because anionic polymerization allows greater control over the final molecular weight of the polymer. The living terminal ends of the polymer may also be easily quenched using an epoxide followed by contact with a protic source providing a polyol. The low viscosity farnesene-based polymers may be derived by polymerizing farnesene monomer alone or with at least one other monomer, such as butadiene or isoprene, for example. It is preferred that the polymers made according to various embodiments of the disclosed methods and compositions are derived from a monomer feed that is primarily composed of farnesene.
      Farnesene exists in isomer forms, such as α-farnesene ((E,E)-3,7,11-trimethyl-1,3,6,10-dodecatetraene) and β-farnesene (7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene). As used in the specification and in the claims, “farnesene” means (E)-β-farnesene having the following structure:

as well (E)-β-farnesene in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by another atom or group of atoms (i.e. substituted).

      The farnesene monomer used to produce various embodiments of the polymer according to the disclosed methods and compositions may be prepared by chemical synthesis from petroleum resources, extracted from insects, such as Aphididae, or plants. Therefore, an advantage of the disclosed methods and compositions is that the polymer may be derived from a monomer obtained via a renewable resource. The monomer may be prepared by culturing a microorganism using a carbon source derived from a saccharides The farnesene-based polymer according to the disclosed methods and compositions may be efficiently prepared from the farnesene monomer obtained via these sources.
      The saccharide used may be any of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides, or may be a combination thereof. Examples of monosaccharides include, without limitation, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, and ribose. Examples of disaccharides include, without limitation, sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose, and cellobiose. Examples of polysaccharides include, without limitation, starch, glycogen, and cellulose.
      The cultured microorganism that consumes the carbon source may be any microorganism capable of producing farnesene through culturing. Examples thereof include eukaryotes, bacteria, and archaebacteria. Examples of eukaryotes include yeast and plants. The microorganism may be a transformant obtained by introducing a foreign gene into a host microorganism. The foreign gene is not particularly limited, and may be a foreign gene involved in the production of farnesene because it can improve the efficiency of producing farnesene.
      In the case of recovering farnesene from the cultured microorganism, the microorganism may be collected by centrifugation and disrupted, and then farnesene can be extracted from the disrupted solution with a solvent. Such solvent extraction may appropriately be combined with any known purification process such as distillation.
      The farnesene-based polymers described herein may be prepared by a continuous solution polymerization process wherein an initiator, monomers, and a suitable solvent are continuously added to a reactor vessel to form the desired homopolymer or co-polymers Alternatively, the farnesene-based polymers may be prepared by a batch process in which all of the initiator, monomers, and solvent are combined in the reactor together substantially simultaneously. Alternatively, the farnesene-based polymers may be prepared by a semi-batch process in which all of the initiator and solvent are combined in the reactor together before a monomer feed is continuously metered into the reactor.
      Preferred initiators for providing a polymer with living terminal chain ends include, but are not limited to organic salts of alkali metals. The polymerization reaction temperature of the mixture in the reactor vessel may be maintained at a temperature of about −80 to 80° C.
      As understood by those having skill in the art, anionic polymerization may continue, as long as monomer is fed to the reaction. The farnesene-based polyols may be obtained by polymerization of farnesene and one or more comonomers. Examples of comonomers include, but are not limited to, dienes, such as butadiene, isoprene, and myrcene, or vinyl aromatics, such as styrene and alpha methyl styrene, in which butadiene, isoprene, and styrene are preferred. In one embodiment of the disclosed methods and compositions, a method of manufacturing a farnesene-based polyol may comprise polymerizing a monomer feed, wherein the monomer feed comprises farnesene monomer and a comonomer in which the comonomer content of the monomer feed is ≦5 75 mol. %, alternatively ≦5 50 mol. %, or alternatively ≦5 25 mol. %, based on the total moles of the monomer in the monomer feed. Examples of cornonomers include, but are not limited to, dienes, vinyl aromatics, and combinations thereof.
      The hydroxy functionalized low viscosity farnesene-based homo-polymers or co-polymers according to embodiments of the disclosed methods and compositions may have a number average molecular weight less than or equal to 100,000 g/mol, alternatively less than or equal to 25,000 g/mol, as measured through a gel permeation chromatograph and converted using polystyrene calibration. The weight of the polyol can be from about 0.5 wt. % to about 99.5 wt. % of the resulting polyurethane. The farnesene-based homopolymers or copolymers may have a viscosity less than or equal to 100,000 cP, alternatively less than 50,000 cP, or alternatively less than or equal to 25,000 cP, at 25° C.
      The quenching step to end polymerization is accomplished by reacting the a living terminal end(s) of the living polymer with an alkylene oxide, such as propylene oxide, and a protic source, such as an acid, resulting in a diol or polyol, i.e. a hydroxyl group on the terminal ends of the polymer.
      Following polymerization, the hydroxyl-terminated polymer may be hydrogenated to decrease the degree of unsaturation of the polymer to at most 50%, alternatively at most 10%. Hydrogenation of the hydroxyl-terminated polymer will modify the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer and improve the thermostability and UV-stability of the polymer. Hydrogenation may be carried out by a variety of processes familiar to those of ordinary skill in the art including, but not limited to, hydrogenation in the presence of catalysts, such as Raney Nickel, nobel metals, soluble transition metal catalysts, and titanium catalysts, for example. Degree of unsaturation is determined by analytical methods known in the art, such as iodine value.
      According to certain embodiments, a composition for making a polyurethane is provided that comprises one or more polyols, wherein at least one polyol is a farnesene-based polyol, one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds having a functionality of at least 2, and optionally, a chain extender selected from the group consisting of monomeric polyols, polyamines, and combinations thereof. The amount of at least one polyol and one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds in the composition may be such that the ratio of —NCO groups to —OH groups is about 2:1 to 1:2. The use of NCO/OH ratios lower than unity results in softer, lower modulus materials. At NCO/OH ratio levels above 1.0 lower modulus material may also be prepared. However, these materials will gradually increase in hardness with time since the free NCO groups can undergo further reaction with moisture to give urea structures, or can form allophanate crosslinks (especially at elevated temperatures).
      The physical properties of the polyurethane, such as viscosity, may be tailored depending on the desired application for the polyurethane by selection of the molecular weight of the polyols, as well as the ratio of farnesene-based polyols to non-farnesene-based polyols in the compositions described herein. Additional polyols that may also be included in the composition with the farnesene-based polyol include, but are not limited to, poly(oxypropylene)glycol, poly(oxyethylene)glycol, poly(oxypropylene-oxyethylene)glycol, poly(oxytetramethylene)glycol, poly(oxybutylene)glycol, poly(caprolactone)glycol, poly(ethyleneadipate)glycol, poly(butyleneadipate)glycol, aromatic polyester glycols, polybutadiene polyol, hydrogenated polybutadiene polyol, polyisoprene polyol, hydrogenated polyisoprene polyol, and mixtures thereof.
      The one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds having a functionality of at least 2 may exhibit several or all of the following characteristics: bulk, symmetry around the isocyanate functional groups, rigid, aromatic, crystalline and high purity. The one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds having a functionality of at least 2 include, but are not limited to, 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), cyclohexanediisocyanate, p-phenylene diisocyanate, 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate, toluene diisocyanate (TDI), p-xylene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate, 4,4′-dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate, 1,4-bis(isocyanomethyl)-cyclohexane, p-tetramethylxylene diisocyanate, m-tetramethylxylene diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, and mixtures thereof.
      The one or more chain extenders included in the composition may include monomeric polyols and polyamines, for example. The molecular weight of each of the one or more chain extenders may be about 50 to 700. As understood by those of skill in the art, the type and amount of chain extender will affect the elastomeric properties of the polyurethane, such as tensile strength, elongation, and tear resistance values. When the compositions as described herein react to form a polyurethane, the chain extenders contribute to the hard segment of the polyurethane that serve as physical cross-links between the amorphous soft segment domains. The hard segments, which are formed by the reaction between an isocyanate group and either the hydroxyl or amine group of the chain extenders, inhibit plastic flow of softer segments of the polyurethane provided by the long chain polyols. The choice and amount of chain extender may also affect flexural, heat, and chemical resistance properties of the polyurethane. The chain extenders may include, but are not limited to, 1,4-butanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, ethylene glycol, 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol (EHD), 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPG), 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (TMPD), 2,4-diethyl-1,5-pentanediol (PD-9), N,N-diisopropanol aniline, dimethylolpropionic acid, hydroquinone dihydroxyethyl ether (HQEE), diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, glycerol, diethyltoluenediamine (DETDA), 4,4′-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBCA), ethylenediamine (EDA), dimethylthiotoluene-diamine (DMTTDA), 4,4′-methylenedianiline (MDA), complex of methylenediamine with NaCl (MDA complex), trimethyleneglycol di-p-aminobenzoate (TMGDAB), 4,4′-methylene-bis(3-chloro-2,6-diethylaniline) (M-CDEA), N,N′-bis(sec-butyl)methylene-dianiline (SBMDA), and mixtures thereof.
      The polyurethanes made according to the methods disclosed herein may be manufactured by a batch procedure or a continuous procedure. The mixing of the reactants can be accomplished by any of the procedures and apparatus conventional in the art. The individual components are urethane grade and, as such, have low moisture content or are rendered substantially free from the presence of water using conventional procedures, for example, by azeotropic distillation, or by heating under reduced pressure at a temperature in excess of the boiling point of water at the pressure employed. The later procedure is desirable to accomplish degassing of the components.
      Preparation of polyurethanes according to the various embodiments disclosed herein may be achieved by procedures conventional in the art for synthesis of polyurethanes. Such procedures include the casting procedure in which the reactants (one or more polyols, one or more diisocyanates, and one or more optional chain extenders) are mixed in the liquid state, either by the one-shot route or the two-step route, also known as the prepolymer technique, and then, the reacting mixture is fabricated into its final form by an appropriate technique such as casting or molding, while the reaction continues by chain extension and/or cross-linking. Final cure is typically achieved by a hot air post-cure for up to twenty-four hours at 25° C. to about 200° C. In general, the reaction of the components limits the subsequent pot life to several minutes, and subsequent casting or molding immediately thereafter. Vacuum degassing may also be used to prepare castings which are bubble free. In the one-shot route, the polyurethane is made by combining all of the components of the composition for making a polyurethane as described herein generally simultaneously into a common reaction vessel. One-shot systems offer the advantages of versatility, simplicity, and low cost fabrication techniques for preparing urethanes having a wide range of physical properties. Such applications as caulks, sealants, elastomers and foams are possible via these systems.
      Two-shot systems are based upon the intermediate formulation of a prepolymer which can be further chain-extended with additional polyols and polyamines to form the final polyurethane. These systems may provide higher performance urethanes and have the advantages of lowering the overall toxicity of the system.
      In the prepolymer procedure, the one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds are first reacted with the one or more polyols to form a prepolymer. The one or more polyols include at least one farnesene-based polyol. Therefore, the resulting prepolymer is a polymer having a chain derived from farnesene monomer and terminal ends functionalized with one or more isocyanate groups. Additional isocyanate-group containing compounds, polyols, and chain extenders may then be added to the prepolymer to complete formation of the polyurethane.
      The methods described herein may be either solventless or include a solvent. In the solventless embodiment, the one or more polyols are heated to 70° to 100° C., for example, and then thoroughly mixed with the desired amount of chain extender for at least two hours under nitrogen flow to eliminate moisture. Isocyanate containing compounds are then added to the mixture immediately prior to pouring the mixture into a heated mold, desirably treated with a mold release compound. The polyurethane composition is formed by curing into the mold for several hours and then postcuring above 110° C. for at least 2 hours. In the solvent method, the one or more polyols are dissolved in a solvent, such as dry toluene, heated to about 70° to 100° C., for example, and then mixed with the desired type and amount of the one or more isocyanate-containing compounds and chain extenders for at least 2 hours under nitrogen flow. The solvent is then removed by evaporation, for example, and then the composition is postcured for at least 2 hours at 110° C. while under vacuum. The thermoplastic polyurethane composition can then be heat pressed above the elastomer melting point to form an elastomeric polyurethane article.
      The compositions for making a polyurethane, in addition to including one or more polyols, isocyanate-containing compounds, and chain extenders may also include reinforcing additives, asphalt, and process oils to alter the physical characteristics of the polyurethane composition and/or reduce costs.
      Plasticizers may be included as extenders that also increase the softness and flexibility of the cured material in various embodiments of the disclosed methods and compositions. One or more plasticizers may be selected from the group consisting of vegetable oil, mineral oil, soybean oil, terpene resins, aromatic esters (e.g. dioctyl phthalate, diundecyl phthalate, tricresyl phosphate, and triisononyl mellitate), linear esters (e.g. di-tridecyl adipate), chlorinated Paraffin, aromatic and napthenic process oils, alkyl naphthalenes, and low molecular weight polyisoprene, polybutadiene, or polybutylene resins. The amounts of plasticizer employed in the invention composition can vary from 0 to about 500 phr (per hundred parts of polyurethane), between about 0 to about 100 phr, and most between about 0 and about 60 phr.
      Because of their hydrocarbon backbones, the polyurethanes made according to the methods and compositions described herein are compatible with conventional hydrocarbon oils, chlorinated oils, asphalts and other related low cost extending materials. The quantity of asphalt or process oil which may be incorporated depends on the type of oils, the amount of isocyanate groups present, and the type of fillers, if present. Cured polyurethanes may be formulated which incorporate in excess of 100 parts extending material per 100 parts of polyurethane and do not “bleed” oil from the final product. The cured polyurethanes may also exhibit a moderate decrease in tensile strength and modulus and improved elongation with the addition of an extending material. Oil extension may also improve hydrolytic stability, control of premix viscosities, pot life, gel time, cure time, and the ability to attain higher filler loading. The use of materials such as chlorinated waxes and oils also provides fire retardant properties to the finished product.
      Suitable fillers include, but are not limited to, carbon black, calcium carbonate, clays, talcs, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, silica and the like. Calcium carbonates are relatively soft and may be used at rather high levels to enhance the extrusion properties of the polyurethane compositions described herein. Elastomers prepared using calcium carbonates are suitable for many caulk and sealant applications where high elongation and moderate tensile properties are required. Clays may provide a moderate degree of reinforcement, fair abrasion resistance, but a relatively high stiffening effect. Clays are used as fillers in stocks requiring hardness and high modulus; e.g., shoe soles and heels, mats, and floor tiles. Zinc oxide may also provide resilience and heat conductivity, but its use as a reinforcing filler may be limited due to high density and cost. Zinc oxide may be effectively employed as a reinforcing filler in conjunction with carbon black to increase tensile, modulus, tear, and hardness, and abrasion resistance. It is important to note that at a constant carbon black level, increasing the concentration of zinc oxide may decrease the workable pot life of the compositions described herein after the isocyanate component is added; i.e., gelation occurs more rapidly. Silicas contribute a greater increase in tensile strength than other non-carbon black fillers. Silicas also have a profound stiffening effect on the compositions described herein. The amount of filler usually is in the range of 0 to about 800 phr, depending on the type of filler used and on the application for which the formulation is intended. Preferred fillers are silica and titanium dioxide. The filler should be thoroughly dried in order that adsorbed moisture will not interfere with the reaction between the isocyanate-containing compounds and the one or more polyols.
      Stabilizers known in the art may also be incorporated into the composition. For example, adhesive formulations that utilize the polyurethanes of the disclosed methods and compositions may include stabilizers for protection during the life of the sealant or adhesive against, for example, oxygen, ozone and ultra-violet radiation. The stabilizers may also prevent therms-oxidative degradation during elevated temperature processing. Antioxidants and UV inhibitors which interfere with the urethane curing reaction should be avoided. Preferred antioxidants are sterically hindered phenolic compounds, like butylated hydroxy toluene. Preferred UV inhibitors are UV absorbers such as benzotriazole compounds. The amount of stabilizer in the formulation will depend greatly on the intended application of the product. If processing and durability requirements are modest, the amount of stabilizer in the formulation will be less than about 1 phr. However depending on the intended use of the polyurethane, the stabilizer concentration may be as much as about 10 phr.
      The polyurethane according to the embodiments of the disclosed methods and compositions may be cured by procedures known by those having ordinary skill in the art for the curing of isocyanate terminated polymers. Curing mechanisms include, but are not limited to, the use of moisture, blocked amines, oxazolidines, epoxies, trilsocyanurate ring formation, allophonate and biruet crosslinking and the like. Unfilled urethane systems may be cured at ambient temperatures, but cure rates may be accelerated by using either typical urethane catalysts and/or elevated temperatures. Catalysts include, but are not limited to, dibutyltin dilaurate and 1,4-diazo [2,2.2] bicyclooctane. The amount and type of catalyst that may be included in the compositions described herein may be selected based on the desired cure rate. Dependent upon the curing technology employed, the resulting polyurethanes may be either a thermoset polyurethane or a higher melt temperature thermoplastic polyurethane once curing is accomplished.
      The polyurethanes obtained according to the various embodiments of the disclosed methods and compositions exhibit excellent chemical and physical properties.

EXAMPLES

      Embodiments of the disclosed methods and compositions are further described using the following non-limiting examples.
      Table 1 provides a list of the materials used for preparing the formulations of the following examples and comparative examples.
[TABLE-US-00001]

TABLE 1
Material Description Eq. Wt
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 0.812 meq/g OH value 1232
(polybutadiene diol) (27-74)
Krasol ® HLBH P-2000 0.83 meq/g OH value
(hydrogenated polybutadiene diol)
Poly bd ® R45-HTLO 0.84 meq/g OH value
(polybutadiene diol)
Polyfarnesene diol 1.019 meq/g OH value 981
(Mw = 2000) (27-74)
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol EHD, 73.12
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 33.5% NCO content 125.4
Diisocyanate (Lupranate ® MI)
Dibutyltin dilaurate T-12
Dibutyl phthalate DBP

Evaluation of Effect of Polyol Blends and Isocyanate Content

      The effect of blending a polyfarnesene diol and polybutadiene diol and reacting the various blends with increasing amounts of a diisocyanate were evaluated. In Comparative Examples 1-3, only polybutadiene diols was used. In Examples 1-6, blends of polybutadiene diol and polyfarnese diols were used. Viscosity of the polyurethane prepolymers was measured at 25° C., and NCO group content was monitored by identifying the intensity of NCO group absorbance peaks at 2265 cm−1 on IR during prepolymer preparation at 60° C. for 3 hours. The results are provided in Tables 2, 3, and 4.
[TABLE-US-00002]

TABLE 2
Comp.
Ex. 1 Ex. 1 Ex. 2
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 75 50
Polyfarnesene diol 0 25 50
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 19.95 20.09 20.24
Diisocyanate
Free NCO % in final 2.72 2.58 2.43
prepolymer by wt %
Viscosity of prepolymer
at 25° C., cps
At initial time of 3437 2230 1398
prepolymerization
At reacted 3 hrs of Off scale 241000 131000
polymerization
NCO content from intensity
at 2265/cm on FTIR
At initial time of 0.1978 0.2074 0.2137
prepolymerization
At reacted 3 hrs of 0.0950 0.0927 0.0911
polymerization
[TABLE-US-00003]

TABLE 3
Comp.
Ex. 2 Ex. 3 Ex. 4
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 75 50
Polyfarnesene diol 0 25 50
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 31.49 31.63 31.79
Diisocyanate
Free NCO % in final 5.42 5.28 5.15
prepolymer by wt %
Viscosity of prepolymer
at 25° C., cps
At initial time of 2007 1299 870
prepolymerization
At reacted 3 hrs of 69360 39492 22620
polymerization
NCO content from intensity
at 2265/cm on FTIR
At initial time of 0.2976 0.2962 0.2982
prepolymerization
At reacted 3 hrs of 0.2001 0.1985 0.1969
polymerization
[TABLE-US-00004]

TABLE 4
Comp.
Ex. 3 Ex. 5 Ex. 6
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 75 50
Polyfarnesene diol 0 25 50
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 46.19 46.33 46.48
Diisocyanate
Free NCO % in final 8.24 8.12 7.99
prepolymer by wt %
Viscosity of prepolymer
at 25° C., cps
At initial time of 1119 721 545
prepolymerization
At reacted 3 hrs of 19371 10685 7264
polymerization
NCO content from intensity
at 2265/cm on FTIR
At initial time of 0.3821 0.3827 0.3852
prepolymerization
At reacted 3 hrs of 0.3048 0.3057 0.3063
polymerization
      Based on the results in Tables 2-4, increased polyfarnesene dial in the polyol blends resulted in a lower viscosity of the resulting polyurethane prepolymer.
      Similar viscosity results, provided in Tables 5, 6, and 7 were exhibited by various blends of polyfarnesene dials with polybutadiene dials. The viscosity of the blends decreases with the increased amount of polyfarnesene diol in the blends.
[TABLE-US-00005]

TABLE 5
Polyfarnesene diol 100 75 50 25 0
Polybd R45HTLO 0 25 50 75 100
Brookfield 25° C. 1289 1828 2757 4187 6467
viscosity, cps 40° C. 427 666 1060 1687 2663
60° C. 142 236 398 652 1045
miscible miscible miscible
[TABLE-US-00006]

TABLE 6
Polyfarnesene diol 100 75 50 25 0
Krasol LBH 2000 0 25 50 75 100
Brookfield 25° C. 1289 2128 3609 6186 10623
viscosity, cps 40° C. 427 668 1035 1629 2605
60° C. 142 205 299 434 631
miscible miscible miscible
[TABLE-US-00007]

TABLE 7
Polyfarnesene diol 100 75 50 25 0
Krasol HLBH 2000 0 25 50 75 100
Brookfield 25° C. 1289 2820 6452 15216 36492
viscosity, cps 40° C. 427 863 1804 3819 8748
60° C. 142 254 473 892 1831
miscible miscible miscible

Evaluation of Physical Properties

      The polyfarnesene diol (Mw=2000) was used, either by itself or blended with polybutadiene polyol, to prepare various samples of cured polyurethane plaques for evaluation. The polyurethanes were prepared from blends that also used various concentrations of a chain extender, ethyl hexanediol (EHD), and a diisocyanate 2,4′ Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate (Lupranate® MI).
      The polyurethanes were prepared by the one shot procedure. Polyols and chain extenders were combined in a flask and mixed under nitrogen at ambient temperature followed by the addition of isocyanate and immediately pouring the mixture into a heated mold. The final curing was performed in an oven and held at 85° C. for 5 hours and overnight at 60° C. Each sample sheet was post cured for one week at room temperature before testing of its physical properties. Relative parameters were tested by referring to ASTM D412, ASTM D624 Die C, and using DSC, Shore type Durometers, a Brookfield viscometer, and an EJA Vantage-10 tensile tester and the results provided in Tables 8, 9, and 10.
[TABLE-US-00008]

TABLE 8
Comp.
Ex. A1 A2 A3 A4
Krasol LBH 2000 LO 100 75 50 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 25 50 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 5.34 5.05 4.75  4.10
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 19.95 20.09 20.24 20.42
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 solution in DBP, 4 4 4 4
drops
Hard segment content, wt % 20.19 20.09 19.99 19.69
Hardness of PU, Shore A 54 47 38 55*
Tensile strength, psi 337 267 No No
data** data***
Elongation at break, % 885 680 >1250 No
data***
Modulus, psi 109 95 41 No
data***
Tear strength, Ibf/in 98 74 33 No
data***
Tg of polyurethane product, ° C. −28.3 −33.4 −39.8 −51.2
55* the hardness was tested by type Shore 00 Durometer
No data** data could not be obtained due to specimen were not broken after strain was over 1200%
No data*** for sample A4, it is too soft and tacky to be tested
[TABLE-US-00009]

TABLE 9
Comp.
Ex. B1 B2 B3 B4
Krasol LBH 2000 LO 100 75 50 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 25 50 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 11.87 11.58 11.28 10.81
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 31.49 31.63 31.79 32.28
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 solution in DBP, 4 5 5 4
drops
Hard segment content, wt % 30.24 30.17 30.10 30.11
Hardness of PU, Shore A 72 66 60 55
Tensile strength, psi 1920 1029 742 572
Elongation at break, % 584 468 479 412
Modulus, psi 494 332 228 164
Tear strength, Ibf/in 269 214 172 109
Tg of polyurethane product, ° C. −28.0 −31.0 −36.6 −47.5
[TABLE-US-00010]

TABLE 10
Comp.
Ex. C1 C2 C3 C4
Krasol LBH 2000 LO 100 75 50 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 25 50 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 20.19 19.89 19.59 19.01
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 46.19 46.33 46.48 46.77
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 solution in DBP, 4 5 5 4
drops
Hard segment content, wt % 39.90 39.84 39.78 39.68
Hardness of PU, Shore A 83 75 73 71
Tensile strength, psi 2188 1350 1125 982
Elongation at break, % 491 291 328 347
Modulus, psi 860 681 527 378
Tear strength, Ibf/in 392 332 280 174
Tg of polyurethane product, ° C. −26.6 −29.9 −33.0 −45.9
      While increased concentrations of polyfarnesene diol in the polyol blend resulted in lower hardness and tensile strength in the cured samples, the higher concentration of chain extender substantially improved the physical properties of all samples. Therefore, the appropriate selection of the type and amount of chain extender should provide a polyurethane prepolymer derived from a substantial amount of polyfarnesene diol with both improved viscosity prior to curing and adequate physical properties upon curing.
      Tables 11 to 16 below provide data associated with the physical properties of polyurethane samples prepared using the two-shot method. Polyols and isocayantes were reacted together to a form a prepolymer at approximately 80° C. for about three hours followed by the addition of chain extenders, such that the final polyurethane had an NCO/OH ratio of approximately 1.0. The final curing was performed in an oven and held at 85° C. for 5 hours and overnight at 60° C.
      For the samples of Examples D3-8, E3-8, and F3-8, polyfarnesene diol (Mw=5000) was evaluated having a higher molecular weight than the polyfarnesene did (Mw=2000) of Examples G3-8, H3-8, and I3-8. Each sample sheet was post cured for one week at room temperature before testing of its physical properties. Relative parameters were tested by referring to ASTM D412, ASTM D624 Die C, and using DSC, Shore type Durometers, a Brookfield viscometer, and an EJA Vantage-10 tensile tester and the results provided in Tables 11 to 16.
[TABLE-US-00011]

TABLE 11
Comp. Ex. Example Example Example
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 100 75 75 50 50 0 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 0 25 25 50 50 100 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 11.80 12.30 12.80 13.80
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- 11.80 12.30 12.80 13.80
pentanediol
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 31.09 31.09 30.57 30.57 30.06 30.06 29.03 29.03
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 in DBP, drop 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Shore A/D hardness 73/28 76/31 72/30 74/30 71/27 71/27 55/16 49/12
Tg, ° C. −29.0 −28.5 −37.0 −38.6 −48.9 −47.3 −60.6 −62.4
Modulus, psi 339 372 474 387 442 452 171 121
Tensile strength, psi 1136 675 1508 641 1507 816 657 447
Elongation at break, % 862 779 730 634 665 526 473 744
Tear resistance, lbf/in 238 205 275 213 248 212 121 104
[TABLE-US-00012]

TABLE 12
Comp. Ex. Example Example Example
E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 100 75 75 50 50 0 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 0 25 25 50 50 100 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 20.40 21.00 21.63 22.50
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- 20.40 21.00 21.63 22.50
pentanediol
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 46.17 46.17 45.82 45.82 45.54 45.54 44.28 44.28
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 in DBP, 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
drops
Shore A/D hardness 91/48 91/44 87/42 86/40 82/38 83/35 66/21 63/18
Tg, ° C. −26.8 −30.0 −36.6 −40.8 −45.5 −46.1 −62.1 −61.5
Modulus, psi 1163 1146 1118 1068 1043 977 387 323
Tensile strength, psi 2106 1347 1976 1345 1671 1191 602 520
Elongation at break, % 452 383 453 399 343 272 200 314
Tear resistance, lbf/in 464 378 404 369 351 283 116 110
[TABLE-US-00013]

TABLE 13
Comp. Ex. Example Example Example
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 100 75 75 50 50 0 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 0 25 25 50 50 100 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 32.60 33.10 33.60 34.60
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- 32.60 33.10 33.60 34.60
pentanediol
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 67.55 67.55 67.03 67.03 66.52 66.52 65.49 65.49
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 solution in 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
DBP, drops
Shore A/D hardness 95/58 96/57 92/52 94/48 82/39 89/42 72/19 68/18
Tg, ° C. −31.3 −29.2 −41.5 −38.6 −50.3 −49.2 −62.9 −62.2
Modulus, psi 2160 2099 1841 1784 1581 1400 258 No data
Tensile strength, psi 3093 2207 2305 1851 1834 1449 262 242
Elongation at break, % 429 290 338 232 231 186 133 88
Tear resistance, lbf/in 627 561 498 463 362 283 80 64
[TABLE-US-00014]

TABLE 14
Comp. Ex. Example Example Example
G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 100 75 75 50 50 0 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 0 25 25 50 50 100 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 11.80 11.60 11.40 11.00
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- 11.80 11.60 11.40 11.00
pentanediol
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 31.09 31.09 31.29 31.29 31.51 31.51 31.91 31.91
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 in DBP, 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
drops
Shore A/D hardness 73/28 76/31 69/26 68/23 66/19 62/20 58/15 57/15
Tg, ° C. −29.0 −28.5 −32.6 −33.5 −38.8 −37.3 −55.5 −49.7
Modulus, psi 339 372 320 274 219 212 98 68
Tensile strength, psi 1136 675 1267 635 1048 560 577 314
Elongation at break, % 862 779 833 728 939 760 903 866
Tear resistance, lbf/in 238 205 211 202 157 142 77 64
[TABLE-US-00015]

TABLE 15
Comp. Ex. Example Example Example
H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 100 75 75 50 50 0 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 0 25 25 50 50 100 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 20.40 20.20 20.00 19.60
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- 20.40 20.20 20.00 19.60
pentanediol
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 46.17 46.17 46.37 46.37 46.58 46.58 46.98 46.98
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 in DBP, drops 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Shore A/D hardness 91/48 91/44 88/41 88/40 82/36 88/39 84/35 84/37
Tg, ° C. −26.8 −30.0 −33.9 −34.3 −39.0 −40.2 −48.11 −50.46
Modulus, psi 1163 1146 1059 1026 801 830 687 714
Tensile strength, psi 2106 1347 1869 1586 1659 1291 1477 1027
Elongation at break, % 452 383 460 490 548 483 514 396
Tear resistance, lbf/in 464 378 395 385 346 326 260 240
[TABLE-US-00016]

TABLE 16
Comp. Ex. Example Example Example
I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 I8
Krasol ® LBH 2000 LO 100 100 75 75 50 50 0 0
Polyfarnesene diol 0 0 25 25 50 50 100 100
2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol 32.50 32.30 32.10 31.70
2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3- 32.50 32.30 32.10 31.70
pentanediol
2,4′ Diphenylmethane 67.38 67.38 67.58 67.58 67.79 67.79 68.19 68.19
Diisocyanate
20% T-12 in DBP, drop 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Shore A/D hardness 95/58 96/57 92/49 95/53 95/48 85/48 96/55 95/52
Tg, ° C. −31.3 −29.2 −35.9 −34.5 −36.7 −41.3 −62.1 −63.6
Modulus, psi 2160 2099 1955 1915 1824 1710 1623 1557
Tensile strength, psi 3093 2207 2415 2133 3230 1761 2355 1669
Elongation at break, % 429 290 314 280 425 235 329 203
Tear resistance, lbf/in 627 561 564 542 527 471 427 420
      Similar to the samples obtained by the one-shot procedure, increased concentrations of polyfarnesene diol in the polyol blend resulted in lower hardness and tensile strength in the cured samples. The use of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol instead of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol provided improved physical properties of all samples suggesting that the appropriate selection of the type and amount of chain extender may counter the effects of increasing the concentration of farnesene-based soft segments in the polyurethane.
      B1, B2, B3, and B4 were prepared by the one shot procedure and had a hard segment content (chain extender plus diisocyanate) based on the total weight of the composition of about 30 wt %. G1, G3, G5, and G7 also had a hard segment content of about 30 wt %, but were produced by the two-shot method. G1, G3, G5, and G7 exhibited a slightly improved tensile strength. Increasing the hard segment content generally improved overall physical performance. For example, compare C1, C2, C3, and C4 with H1, H3, H5, and H7, which ail have a hard segment content of about 40 wt. %.
      While preferred embodiments of the invention have been shown and described herein, it will be understood that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions will occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. Accordingly, it is intended that the appended claims cover all such variations as fall within the spirit and scope of the invention.

Claims

1. A composition for making a polyurethane comprising one or more polyols and one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds,

wherein at least one of the one or more polyols is a farnesene-based polyol, and
wherein the one or more isocyanate-group containing compounds have an isocyanate group functionality of at least two.

2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the farnesene-based polyol is a copolymer of farnesene and a comonomer selected from dienes, vinyl aromatics, and combinations thereof.

3. The composition of claim 2, wherein the dienes are selected from the group consisting of butadiene, isoprene, and combinations thereof.

4. The composition of claim 2, wherein the vinyl aromatics are selected from the group consisting of styrene and alpha methyl styrene.

5. The composition of claim 1 further comprising a chain extender.

6. The composition of claim 4, wherein the chain extender is selected from the group consisting of monomeric polyols and polyamines.

7. The composition of claim 1, wherein the one or more polyols further comprises a polyol of a homopolymer or copolymer of a polydiene.

8. The composition of claim 1 comprising an NCO/OH ratio of about 2:1 to 1:2.

9. The composition of claim 1, wherein the farnesene-based polyol has a number average molecular weight less than or equal to 100,000 g/mol.

10. The composition of claim 1, wherein the farnesene-based polyol has a number average molecular weight less than or equal to 25,000 g/mol.

11. The composition of claim 1, wherein the farnesene-based polyol has a viscosity at 25° C. less than 10,000 cP.

12. The composition of claim 1, wherein the farnesene-based polyol has a degree of unsaturation less than or equal to 50%.

13. The composition of claim 1, wherein the farnesene-based polyol has a degree of unsaturation less than or equal to 10%.

14.-27. (canceled)
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