Application Number: 15437879 Application Date: 21.02.2017
Publication Number: 20170226369 Publication Date: 10.08.2017
Publication Kind : A1
IPC:
C09D 133/12
C09D 133/08
Applicants: Valspar Sourcing, Inc.
Inventors: Mary Jane Hibben
Nicholas Rebel
Steven Hallberg
Priority Data:
Title: (EN) HIGH BLOCK, TACK AND SCRUB RESISTANT POLYMER
Abstract:
(EN)

The present invention is directed to a coating composition or paint comprising a multistage latex with at least first and second stages, wherein the composition or paint is substantially free of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and capable of film formation even in the absence of coalescent agents. The base paint formulation is capable of being tinted at a point-of-sale (i.e. in-store) using a colorant composition of a type and quantity required to produce a paint of desired color and finish. The paints, including deeply colored paints, show improved block resistance, scrub resistance and tack resistance.

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION(S)

      This application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 14/285,722 filed 23 May 2014 (now U.S. Pat. No. ______), which is a continuation of International Application No. PCT/US2012/069108, filed 15 Dec. 2012, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/576,021, filed 15 Dec. 2011, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

      Conventionally, paint compositions containing latex polymer particles also include a coalescent in addition to pigments and fillers. The coalescent functions as a solvent as well as a plasticizer for the polymer particles to soften the latex polymer particles and assist in the formation of a continuous coating or film after applying to a surface and allowing to dry.
      Useful coalescents are generally stable in the presence of water, compatible with other ingredients typically used in paint formulations, particularly the latex polymers, such that the stability of the latex-based composition is not compromised. Typical coalescent agents contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) and are sufficiently volatile to escape when the applied coating composition is allowed to dry, but sufficiently nonvolatile to evaporate more slowly than other ingredients (e.g., drying retarders, antifreezes) that delay film formation.
      For environmental and regulatory reasons, it has become imperative to develop latex polymers that can be used in paint and coating compositions without the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Coalescent agents of the type described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,762,230 and 7,812,079, for example, are low-VOC compounds that meet stringent environmental requirements, while facilitating film formation.
      To make paint formulations of a desired color and finish, base paint compositions are combined at a point-of-sale with low-VOC colorant compositions of the type described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,659,340, for example. However, typical low VOC paints with low VOC colorants tend to form soft, tacky coatings that show poor performance characteristics, such as poor block resistance and poor scrub resistance, for example. This situation is further complicated in deeply colored paint formulations that require high loading of the low VOC or zero-VOC colorants, which generally have residual non-volatile soft components, making hard film formation even more difficult.
      From the foregoing, it will be appreciated that there is a need for latex compositions for use in paint formulations, including deeply colored formulations that form hard films in the presence of low VOC or zero-VOC components soft components, even in the absence of coalescent agents, and demonstrate excellent performance characteristics, including block, scrub and tack resistance.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

      The present invention provides coating compositions that include multistage latex polymers, for use in low VOC, colored paint formulations. These formulations include deeply colored formulations, made by adding colorant compositions to base paint formulations at a point-of-sale. Surprisingly, and in contravention of industry bias, systems that include the latex polymer described herein are preferably capable of film formation in the absence of a coalescent agent, and the paints demonstrate excellent tack resistance, block resistance and scrub resistance.
      Accordingly, in one embodiment, the present invention provides base paints that include a multistage latex polymer having at least a first stage and a second stage. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method of making a paint formulation of a desired color by adding a colorant composition to a base paint formulation at a point-of-sale, wherein the base paint formulation includes a multistage latex polymer having at least a first stage and a second stage. In another embodiment, the present invention provides a method comprising the steps of preparing a first monomer mixture for the first stage, preparing a second monomer mixture for the second stage, and feeding the first and second monomer mixtures in a sequential feed process to form the multistage latex polymer, wherein the latex polymer has low VOC content, and is preferably capable of film formation in the absence of a coalescent.
      The above summary of the present invention is not intended to describe each disclosed embodiment or every implementation of the present invention. The description that follows more particularly exemplifies illustrative embodiments. In several places throughout the application, guidance is provided through lists of examples, which examples can be used in various combinations. In each instance, the recited list serves only as a representative group and should not be interpreted as an exclusive list.
      The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.

Selected Definitions

      Unless otherwise specified, the following terms as used herein have the meanings provided below.
      The term “component” refers to any compound that includes a particular feature or structure. Examples of components include compounds, monomers, oligomers, polymers, and organic groups contained there.
      The term “double bond” is non-limiting and refers to any type of double bond between any suitable atoms (e.g., C, O, N, etc.). The term “ethylenically unsaturated” refers to compounds that include a carbon-carbon double bond (i.e. —C═C—).
      The term “volatile organic compound” (“VOC”), as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 40 C.F.R. 51.100(s), refers to any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions. Typically, volatile organic compounds have a vapor pressure equal to or greater than 0.1 mm Hg. As used herein, “volatile organic compound content” (“VOC content”) is as measured by ASTM method D2369-90, and means the weight of VOC per volume of the coating solids, and is reported, for example, as grams VOC per liter (g/L).
      As used herein, the term “glass transition temperature” or “Tg” refers to the temperature at which an amorphous, solid material undergoes a reversible transition to a molten, rubber-like state. Unless otherwise indicated, the Tg values described herein are theoretical values predicted using the Fox equation. Application of the Fox equation to estimate the Tg of polymers is well known in the art.
      The term “substantially free of VOC” means that the compositions of the present invention contain less than about 50 g/L VOC. Unless otherwise indicated, the terms “low VOC” and “substantially free of VOC” are used interchangeably herein. The term “essentially free of VOC” means that the compositions of the present invention contain less than 5 g/L of VOCs. The terms, “zero VOC” and “essentially free of VOC” are used interchangeably herein.
      The term “substantially free,” when applied to components of a composition and not to VOC levels, means that the compositions of the present invention contain no more than about 5 wt % of a particular component, based on total weight of solids in the composition. For example, a composition of the present invention that is substantially free of coalescent contains no more than about 5 wt % coalescent. A composition of the present invention that is essentially free of coalescent contains no more than about 0.5 wt % of coalescent.
      The term “water-dispersible” in the context of a water-dispersible polymer means that the polymer can be mixed into water (or an aqueous carrier) to form a stable mixture. For example, a mixture that readily separates into immiscible layers is not a stable mixture. Unless otherwise indicated, the term “water-dispersible” is intended to include the term “water-soluble.” In other words, by definition, a water-soluble polymer is also considered to be a water-dispersible polymer.
      The term “dispersion,” as used herein, in the context of a dispersible polymer refers to the mixture of a dispersible polymer and a carrier. Unless otherwise indicated, the term “dispersion” is intended to include the term “solution.”
      As used herein, the term “pigment” refers to an organic or inorganic material, and is typically (but not exclusively) in solid form.
      As used herein, the term “colorant” refers to a dispersion of pigment in a mobile phase, typically in liquid form, which is added to a coating composition to modify or alter its color or hue, typically at a point-of-sale. As the term is used herein, a colorant may include one or more pigments, dyes and/or inks, along with other additives.
      As used herein, the term “base paint” means a composition that includes a vehicle component containing a binder or resin component, and a pigment or filler component dispersed into the vehicle component. As used herein, the base paint formulation includes water as the vehicle, a latex polymer as the binder or resin component, and one or more pigments or fillers used to tone or opacify the base paint as the pigment component.
      The base paints described herein are “in-store tintable,” meaning that the base paints are present in containers (such as paint cans, for example) and can be tinted or colored by adding a colorant composition in the store, i.e. at a point of sale, to provide a paint formulation of a desired color and finish.
      As used herein, the term “container” means any vessel (either with or without a lid or other type of closure) used to store, mix, tint or color a paint formulation, and includes the vessels in which paints are typically marketed and sold. Suitable containers include paint cans, paint bottles, containers made of metal, containers made of plastic and/or other polymeric materials, and the like.
      The term “headspace,” as used herein, refers to the volume remaining in a container after the container has been filled with a base paint.
      The term “scrub resistance,” as used herein, refers to the ability of the surface of a coating film or paint film to resist being worn away or to maintain its original appearance when rubbed with or against an abrasive surface, typically during cleaning. To measure scrub resistance, a standard test method, ASTM D2486-96 (Standard Test Method for Scrub Resistance of Wall Paints).
      As used herein, the term “block resistance” means the ability of a coating film or paint film, when applied to two surfaces, not to stick to itself on prolonged contact when pressure is applied for a defined period of time. It is a measure of the degree of hardness and/or degree of cure of a film of a coating composition or paint formulation, and is measured by a standard test method, ASTM D4946-89 (Standard Test Method for Blocking Resistance of Architectural Paints).
      The term “tack resistance,” as used herein, refers to the residual tack of a coating film or paint film after it has been applied to a substrate surface and dried. Tack resistance is typically measured by the Zapon tack test, as further described below.
      Unless otherwise indicated, a reference to a “(meth)acrylate” compound (where “meth” is bracketed) is meant to include both acrylate and methacrylate compounds.
      The term “on”, when used in the context of a coating applied on a surface or substrate, includes both coatings applied directly or indirectly to the surface or substrate. Thus, for example, a coating applied to a primer layer overlying a substrate constitutes a coating applied on the substrate.
      Unless otherwise indicated, the term “polymer” includes both homopolymers and copolymers (i.e., polymers of two or more different monomers).
      The term “comprises” and variations thereof do not have a limiting meaning where these terms appear in the description and claims.
      The terms “preferred” and “preferably” refer to embodiments of the invention that may afford certain benefits, under certain circumstances. However, other embodiments may also be preferred, under the same or other circumstances. Furthermore, the recitation of one or more preferred embodiments does not imply that other embodiments are not useful, and is not intended to exclude other embodiments from the scope of the invention.
      As used herein, “a,” “an,” “the,” “at least one,” and “one or more” are used interchangeably. Thus, for example, a coating composition that comprises “an” additive can be interpreted to mean that the coating composition includes “one or more” additives.
      Also herein, the recitations of numerical ranges by endpoints include all numbers subsumed within that range (e.g., 1 to 5 includes 1, 1.5, 2, 2.75, 3, 3.80, 4, 5, etc.). Furthermore, disclosure of a range includes disclosure of all subranges included within the broader range (e.g., 1 to 5 discloses 1 to 4, 1.5 to 4.5, 1 to 2, etc.).

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

      Embodiments of the invention described herein feature an in-store tintable base paint formulation that includes a multistage latex polymer having at least a first stage and a second stage, wherein the latex is preferably capable of forming a film even in the absence of a coalescent agent. The base paint formulation as described herein is preferably substantially free of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and is used to make coating compositions or paints, including deeply colored paints, by the addition of colorant compositions to the base paint at the point-of-sale. Preferred paints demonstrate excellent performance characteristics, such as optimal block resistance, and superior scrub resistance and tack resistance, for example.
      In an embodiment, the invention described herein includes an in-store tintable base paint that comprises a multistage latex polymer. The term “multistage,” as used herein with respect to a latex means the latex polymer was made using discrete, sequential charges of two or more monomers or monomer mixtures, or was made using a continuously-varied charge of two or more monomers.
      A multistage latex does not necessarily exhibit a single Tg inflection point as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For example, a DSC curve for a multistage latex made using discrete charges of two or more monomers may exhibit two or more Tg inflection points. In cases where a DSC curve shows only a single Tg inflection point, or even no Tg inflection points, it may be difficult to determine whether the latex is single stage or multistage, as the observation of a Tg inflection point depends on various factors, including the relative concentration of monomers in a particular stage. The presence of absence of Tg inflection points on a DSC curve is not dispositive, but a multistage latex may be described in terms of the theoretical Tg values for each monomer stage, as determined by the Fox equation.
      In an embodiment, a method of making a multistage having at least a first stage and a second stage is described herein. The method includes steps of providing a first monomer or mixture for the first stage, providing a second monomer or mixture for the second stage; and feeding the first and second monomers or mixtures into a reaction vessel to form a multistage latex that is capable of film formation in the absence of a coalescent agent.
      Various methods can be used to prepare the multistage latex described herein, including for example, sequential monomer feed and continuously varying monomer feed techniques. In a sequential monomer feed process, a first monomer or monomer mixture is fed during the early stages of polymerization, and a second monomer (i.e. a different monomer, or a mixture of monomers present in different ratios than in the first monomer mixture) is fed during later stages of polymerization. In a varying monomer feed process, a first monomer composition is fed, followed by the addition of a second monomer at certain points in the polymerization process, and at different speeds. By controlling the type of monomers selected for the feed process, a multistage latex suitable for low VOC, coating compositions or paints may be formed, and the latex preferably provides excellent performance characteristics, such as, for example, block resistance, scrub resistance, tack resistance, and the like, for such coating or paint formulations.
      In an embodiment, the multistage latex composition described herein is made by a sequential monomer feed process. In an aspect, polymerization begins with a high Tg monomer feed followed by a low Tg monomer feed, and vice-versa. In a preferred aspect, polymerization with a high Tg monomer feed, followed by a low Tg monomer feed.
      In an embodiment, the multistage latex composition described herein is made using varying monomer feeds. The resulting polymer will typically have a DSC curve that exhibits no Tg inflection points, and could be said to have an essentially infinite number of Tg stages. The resultant multistage latex will have a gradient Tg from high to low, or vice-versa, depending on the order that monomers of high Tg are fed into the reaction.
      In a preferred aspect, the multistage latex described herein is made by a sequential monomer feed process using at least two distinct feeds of monomers. In an aspect, a high Tg stage (i.e. a hard stage) is fed first into a reactor vessel, and a low Tg stage (i.e. a soft stage) is added at a later stage in the process. A multistage latex may be formed, and after coalescence, the composition will typically display two distinct Tg values, or at least one Tg corresponding to the monomer stage present at higher concentration. Without being bound to theory, it is expected that no distinct Tg will be observed or detected by DSC for a monomer or monomer mixture in a particular stage that is present in very small quantities relative to the other monomer or monomer mixture.
      In an aspect, the multistage latex optionally includes a seed phase, i.e. a relatively small monomer or polymer particle, but the seed is not required, nor essential for preparation or optimal performance of the multistage latex when used in a coating composition or paint formulation.
      In an aspect, the relative positions of the first and second phases may be internal and external respectively, or vice-versa. In another aspect, the first and second phases may be neighboring or adjacent. Without being bound by theory, it is believed that the relative position of the stages of the multistage latex is influenced by the method used to make the latex. By controlling the monomers used in each stage of the sequential monomer feed process, the multistage latex described herein will contain about 10 wt % to 50 wt %, preferably about 20 to 40 wt %, more preferably about 25 to 35 wt % of monomers of the first stage, i.e. high Tg or hard stage monomers, and about 50 wt % to 90 wt %, preferably about 60 to 80 wt %, more preferably about 65 to 75 wt % of monomers of the second stage, i.e. low Tg or soft stage monomers, based on the total weight of the composition.
      In an embodiment, by controlling the monomers used for each stage of the sequential monomer feed process, a multistage latex composition with optimal minimum film forming temperature (MFFT) is obtained. The MFFT is the minimum temperature at which the multistage latex composition will form a continuous film, i.e. the temperature below which coalescence does not occur. The MFFT of the multistage latex composition as described herein is preferably less than about 20° C., more preferably less than about 10° C., and most preferably less than about 5° C. A base paint or other paint that includes the multistage latex described herein has MFFT of less than about 20° C., preferably less than about 10° C.
      In an embodiment, the multistage latex described herein preferably includes at least two polymer portions. In a preferred embodiment, the multistage latex includes at least a first stage and a second stage. In an aspect, the multistage latex includes up to about 50%, preferably about 10% to 40%, more preferably 15% to 35% of one or more monomers or a mixture of monomers comprising the first stage. In an aspect, the multistage latex includes about 50%, preferably 60% to 90%, more preferably 75% to 85% of one or more monomers or a mixture of monomers comprising the second stage.
      In an embodiment, the multistage latex described herein preferably includes at least two polymer portions with different Tg values. In a preferred embodiment, the multistage latex includes at least a first stage and a second stage. The first stage preferably has a Tg of about 0° C. to 120° C., more preferably about 80° C. to about 110° C. The second stage preferably has a Tg of greater than about −35° C. to 0° C., more preferably about −20° C. to −10° C. In an embodiment, where the multistage latex is intended for use in a pigmented high gloss or semi-gloss paint, the first stage preferably has Tg of about 0° to 120° C., more preferably 25° to 75° C., most preferably 45° to 55° C.
      In an embodiment, the multistage latex described herein preferably includes at least two polymer portions, i.e. a first stage and a second stage, with different Tg values, where the difference in Tg (ΔTg) is about 35° C., preferably about 65° C., more preferably about 95° C., and most preferably about 125° C. In an embodiment, where the multistage latex is intended for use in a pigmented high gloss or semi-gloss paint, the difference in Tg (ΔTg) is preferably about 35° C., more preferably about 65° C.
      In an embodiment, the invention described herein includes a multistage latex polymer having at least a first stage and a second stage. In an aspect, the first stage and second stage of the multistage latex separately and preferably include one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers. In another aspect, the first and second stage of the multistage latex separately and preferably includes the one or more polymerization product(s) of (i) ethylenically unsaturated monomers, such as, for example, alkyl and alkoxy (meth)acrylates, vinyl esters of saturated carboxylic acids, monoolefins, conjugated dienes, optionally with (ii) one or more monomers, such as, for example, styrene, methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, vinyl acetate, acrylonitrile, vinyl chloride, and the like. In an embodiment, the first stage or second stage of the multistage latex optionally includes one or more polyfunctional (meth)acrylate monomers. In an embodiment, the first stage and second stage separately and preferably also include one or more ethylenically unsaturated carboxy-functional amide monomers, e.g., ureido-functional monomers, such as monomers formed as the product of the reaction between aminoalkyl alkylene urea (e.g., amino ethylene urea, for example) with an ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or anhydride (e.g., maleic anhydride, for example).
      Suitable ethylenically unsaturated monomers of the first and second stage include, for example, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, propyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, propyl methacrylate, butyl methacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate, hydroxyethyl acrylate, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, hydroxybutyl acrylate, hydroxybutyl methacrylate, glycidyl methacrylate, 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate glycidyl ether, 2-(acetoacetoxy)ethyl methacrylate (AAEM), diacetone acrylamide, acrylamide, methacrylamide, methylol (meth)acrylamide, styrene, α-methyl styrene, vinyl toluene, vinyl acetate, vinyl propionate, allyl methacrylate, and mixtures thereof. Preferred monomers include styrene, methyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and the like.
      Suitable polyfunctional acrylates include, for example, di-, tri- and tetra-functional acrylates such as dipropylene glycol diacrylate (DPGDA), propoxylated glyceryl triacrylate (GPTA), pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, dipentaerythritol tetraacrylate, mixtures thereof, and the like. Preferred polyfunctional acrylate monomers include pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, dipentaerytrithol tetraacrylate, and the like.
      Suitable ureido-functional monomers include, for example, monomers with the —NR—(C═O)—NH— functionality, where R may be H, substituted or unsubstituted C1-C10 alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted C3-Ccycloalkyl or heteroalkyl, and the like. Without being bound by theory, ureido-functional monomers are believed to promote the wet adhesion of a paint formulation to a substrate, where the formulation includes the multistage latex described herein.
      In an embodiment, the first or second stage of the multistage latex each separately and preferably include about 90 to 99 wt %, more preferably about 94 to 96 wt % , and most preferably about 97 to 98 wt % of one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers, and preferably up to about 5 wt %, more preferably about 1 to 4 wt %, and most preferably about 2 to 3 wt % of one or more ureido-functional monomers, based on the total weight of the monomers in the first or second stage respectively. For example, in a preferred embodiment, the first stage includes about 95 wt % methyl methacrylate, 2 wt % methacrylic acid, 2 wt % AAEM, and about 1 wt % ureido-functional monomer. In a preferred embodiment, the second stage includes about 30 wt % methyl methacrylate, 60 wt % butyl acrylate, about 4 wt % AAEM, about 2 wt % methacrylic acid, and about 1 wt % ureido-functional monomer.
      In an embodiment, the multistage latex described herein includes, optionally and preferably, a fluorosurfactant. As used herein, the term “fluorosurfactant” refers to synthetic organofluorine compounds with multiple fluorine atoms. Such compounds can be polyfluorinated, perfluorinated (i.e. fluorocarbons), or partially fluorinated, and typically include a hydrophilic head and a fluorinated/hydrophobic tail. Suitable fluorosurfactants may be anionic or nonionic. Commonly used fluorosurfactants include, for example, fluoroalkanes, perfluoroalkanes, their derivatives, and the like. In an aspect, short chain fluorinated compounds are preferred, such as, for example, C1-C10 fluorinated compounds. In a preferred aspect, the fluorosurfactant is an anionic C6-fluorocarbon compound, and is preferably substantially free of PFOS and PFOA, and more preferably, essentially free of PFOS and PFOA. In a preferred aspect, the multistage latex preferably includes up to about 0.5 wt %, more preferably about 0.1 to 0.3 wt %, based on the total weight of the multistage latex composition.
      The composition described herein may include other components or additives, added to either the reaction mixture of monomers used to make the multistage latex, to the latex, or to a coating composition or base paint that includes the latex. Suitable additives are known to those of skill in the art and include, for example, surfactants, open time agents, pH adjustors, initiator and chaser solutions, cross-linking agents, preservatives, defoaming agents, anticorrosive agents, and combinations thereof.
      In an aspect, the multistage latex composition described herein may include a coalescing agent that aids in film formation. Suitable coalescing agents or coalescent compounds are dispersible in a coating composition or paint that includes the latex described herein, and facilitate film formation at temperatures of less than about 25° C., and even at temperatures of 5 to 10° C. Preferred coalescing agents have VOC content of less than about 50%, preferably less than about 30%, more preferably, less than about 20%, and most preferably, less than about 15%. Exemplary suitable coalescing agents include low VOC compounds of the type described in detail at least in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,762,230 and 7,812,079. Other suitable low VOC coalescents include Optifilm (Eastman Chemical, Kingsport Tenn.), Loxanol (Cognis, Kankakee Ill., now BASF), Archer RC (ADM, Decator Ill.), and the like. Conventional coalescing agents such as, Texanol (Eastman Chemical) and the like can also be used, either alone or in combination with other solvents such as, for example, 2-butoxyethanol (butyl cellosolve), diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (butyl carbitol), and the like, provided low VOC levels are maintained in the coating composition or paint.
      Although coalescing agents are typically used in paint to aid in film formation, the paint made with the multistage latex described herein is oftentimes capable of film formation at low levels of coalescent, or even in the absence of coalescing agents, at film-forming temperatures of 20° C. or less, more preferably at temperatures of 10° C. or less. Accordingly, in an aspect, the coalescing agent is an optional ingredient in coating compositions or paints that include the latex described herein, and in a preferred aspect, the coating composition or paint is substantially free, and more preferably, essentially free of coalescing agents.
      In an embodiment, the multistage latex composition described herein is suitable for use in a low-VOC or zero-VOC coating composition or a paint to be colored or tinted to a desired color and finish, such as an in-store tintable base paint, for example. In an aspect, the coating composition or paint may include one or more pigments, including pigments or fillers used to tone or opacify the in-store tintable base paint. Suitable examples of pigments include, without limitation, titanium dioxide white, carbon black, lamp black, black iron oxide, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, brown iron oxide (a blend of yellow and red oxide with black oxide), phthalocyanine green, phthalocyanine blue, organic reds (such as naphthol red, quinacridone red and toluidine red), quinacridone magenta, quinacridone violent, DNA orange, and/or organic yellows (such as Hansa yellow), for example.
      In an embodiment, the multistage latex composition can be used in a coating composition, such as a paint, especially a base paint to be colored or tinted at the point-of-sale of a paint of desired color and finish. In an aspect, the base paint may be clear (unpigmented) or pigmented prior to being colored or tinted. In an aspect, the base paint is tinted or colored in-store using one or more commercially available colorants. Suitable colorants which can be used in a coating composition or paint formulation include, for example, NovoColor (Color Corp. of America, Louisville Ky.) colorants, i.e. zero-VOC colorants compatible with water-based coating compositions as described herein. Preferred colorant compositions include a colorant component, i.e. a pigment dispersed in a liquid phase, a surfactant package that includes a latex-compatible surfactant, a carrier, and other optional additives. Exemplary colorant compositions include single colorant formulations compatible with latex paints, of the kind described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,488,760 and 7,659,340. These colorant compositions are uniform and do not require mixing before addition to a base paint formulation, have extended shelf-life, and show viscosity increase of less than about 15 KU, more preferably less than about 10 KU, when stored over an extended period of time at temperatures of about 40° to 50°.
      In an aspect, the multistage latex composition can be used in a base paint formulation to be tinted to produce a dark or deeply colored paint. To produce such dark or deeply colored paint requires a high colorant load. In an aspect, the amount of colorant to be added to the base paint is determined by the desired color and finish (i.e. glossy, semi-gloss, satin, etc) of the colored paint. Preferably, the paint includes up to about 20 wt % colorant, more preferably about 5 to 15 wt % colorant, and most preferably about 8 to 12 wt % colorant.
      Typically, the viscosity of the base paint decreases when the colorant composition is added. A deeply colored paint requires a high colorant load, and therefore, the colored paint will have a lower viscosity and may have poor properties on application to a substrate. Moreover, as base paints are made to have low or no VOC by using softer polymers, and low or no VOC-containing colorants added to the base paint have a high percentage of non-volatile soft components, it is difficult to form a hard acrylic film or coating, with good mechanical properties, i.e. block resistance, and scrub resistance, for example. Surprisingly, the multistage latex described herein, when used in a base paint to be tinted to a colored paint, and especially a deeply colored paint, resists softening even at the high colorant load, with a correspondingly high percentage of non-volatile soft components, needed to make a deeply colored paint. Contrary to expectation, deeply colored paints made using the multistage latex described herein provide excellent block resistance while maintaining superior scrub resistance when compared to commercially available latex polymers.
      In contravention of industry bias, when used in paint applied at high temperatures and/or in very humid environments, the paint including multistage latex described herein displays excellent performance characteristics, with optimal scrub resistance and tack resistance, along with superior block resistance relative to formulations made using commercially available latex polymers.
      In an embodiment, paints made with the multistage latex described herein demonstrate excellent block resistance. Block resistance is measured by a standard test as described below, and block ratings are assigned on a scale from 0 to 10, where a rating of 0 corresponds to very poor block resistance, and a rating of 10 corresponds to excellent block resistance. In an aspect, the paints described herein show 1-day and 7-day block ratings of preferably at least 6, more preferably at least 7, and most preferably at least 8.
      In an embodiment, paints made with the multistage latex described herein demonstrate superior scrub resistance, when compared to commercially available formulations. Scrub resistance is measured by a standard test as described below. The film is cured for seven (7) days, and scrub resistance is reported as a number of scrubs applied before the film failed, i.e. scrubbed off the substrate surface. In an aspect, the paints described herein display scrub resistance of at least about 600 scrubs, more preferably about 800 to 1300, and most preferably about 900 to 1200.
      In an embodiment, paints made with the multistage latex described herein demonstrate excellent tack resistance. Tack resistance is measured by a standard test as described below, and reported as the time following initial cure that the surface of the film is no longer sticky to the touch. In an aspect, the paints described herein preferably display tack resistance of no more than about 60 seconds, more preferably no more than about 15 seconds, and most preferably no more than about 5 seconds.
      In an aspect, the multistage latex composition described herein can be used in a coating composition or paint that further includes one or more additives. Suitable additives include, without limitation, fillers, thixotropes, rheological modifiers, matting agents, and the like. The additives may include one or more ingredients added to a paint to modify the properties or enhance paint performance during storage, handling, application and other or subsequent stages. Desirable performance characteristics of a paint formulation include, for example, chemical resistance, abrasion resistance (i.e. scrub resistance), tack resistance, hardness, gloss, reflectivity, appearance and/or a combination of such properties and similar other properties. Preferred performance enhancing additives include lacquers, waxes, flatting agents, additives to prevent mar, abrasion, and the like.
      The invention is illustrated by the following examples. It is to be understood that the particular examples, materials, amounts, and procedures are to be interpreted broadly in accordance with the scope and spirit of the inventions as set forth herein. Unless otherwise indicated, all parts and percentages are by weight and all molecular weights are weight average molecular weight. Unless otherwise specified, all chemicals used are commercially available from, for example, Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, Mo.

EXAMPLES

      Unless indicated otherwise, the following test methods were utilized in the Example(s) that follow(s).

Scrub Resistance

      The scrub resistance of the paint formulations is tested using ASTM D2486-96 (Standard Test Method for Scrub Resistance of Wall Paints).

Block Resistance

      The block resistance of the paint formulations is tested using ASTM D4946-89 (Standard Test Method for Blocking Resistance of Architectural Paints).

Tack Resistance

      Tack resistance of the paint formulations is measured by the Zapon tack test. An aluminum lever of 3″ (7.62 cm) in length and 1″ (2.54 cm) wide is bent at a 40° angle from the vertical, creating a 1″ (2.54 cm) platform and 2″ (5.08 cm) lever. A drawdown is made using 4 mil (0.10 mm) Bird bar and allowed to cure overnight. The Zapon tack tester is then set on the film and weighted with a specific weight and allowed to stand for a specific period of time (i.e. a 1000 g weight for 30 seconds). Upon removal of the weight, the time taken for the Zapon tack tester to fall over is observed and recorded. A film that has no tack will cause the tack tester to fall over instantly.

Example 1

      Multistage latex compositions #1 to #9 were prepared by a sequential monomer feed process, as described above, including at least a first stage and a second stage. The multistage latex compositions were included in a clear (unpigmented) base paint. The base paint was tinted using black colorant at a concentration of 12 ounces of colorant per gallon of the base paint (i.e. 7.5 g/L of colorant) to provide black test paint formulations with a semi-gloss finish. The paints were tested alongside control paint made from a commercially available latex polymer system known to provide optimal block resistance (Rhoplex™ HG706, available from Dow). This latex is included in a control base paint, and the control paint is tinted to a black color and semi-gloss finish by adding 12 oz. of colorant per gallon of the control base paint. Testing results are shown in Table 1, where the stage ratio represents the ratio of “hard” monomers to “soft” monomers.
[TABLE-US-00001]

TABLE 1
Performance properties of Multistage latex
Commercial
Latex #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9
Stage ratio 30/70 30/70 30/70 30/70 30/70 40/60 20/80 70/30 30/70
Hard Tg 106° C. 106° C. 75° C.  75° C. 106° C. 106° C. 106° C. 106° C. 106° C.
Soft Tg −10° C. −25° C. −10° C. −25° C. −10° C. −10° C. −10° C. −10° C. −10° C.
MFFT 12° C.  14° C.  0° C. 12° C.  0° C.  12° C.  18° C.  11° C. >18° C.  <5° C.
Gloss 48/85 46/82 48/84 45/81 46/83 45/82 43/80 47/83 47/80 29/75
(60°/85°)
24 h block 8/8 7/3 6/3 8/5 7/4 7/4 8.5/7 8/6 9/8 7/7
 7 day block 8/8 7.5/8 7.5/7 8/8 8/8 7/7 9/9 8/8 9/9 10/10
24 h tack 3 sec 3 sec 60 sec 2 sec 60 sec 2 sec 1 sec 16 sec instant 2 sec
Scrub 460 640 1250 345 535 540 520 885 95 285

Example 2

      Multistage latex compositions #1B to #4B were prepared by a sequential monomer feed process, as described above, including at least a first stage and a second stage, with a ratio of “hard” to “soft” monomers of 30/70 for each composition. The multistage latex compositions were included in a pigmented base paint. The base paint was tinted using black colorant at a concentration of 12 ounces of colorant per gallon of the base paint (i.e. 7.5 g/L of colorant) to provide black test paint formulations with a semi-gloss finish. Test results were compared with a control base paint made as described in Example 1. Results are shown in Table 2.
[TABLE-US-00002]

TABLE 2
Performance properties of Multistage latex
Control #1B #2B #3B #4B
Tg hard NA 106 60 50 37
stage
Tg soft stage NA −12 −12 −12 −12
MFFT 10 10 11 9 7
Gloss 45/80 39/79 46/78 45/70 40/78
(60°/85°)
Tack 24 seconds Instant Instant 5 seconds 60+ seconds
24 hr Block 8.5 9 8.5 8.5 8
(oven)
      The complete disclosure of all patents, patent applications, and publications, and electronically available material cited herein are incorporated by reference. The foregoing detailed description and examples have been given for clarity of understanding only. No unnecessary limitations are to be understood therefrom. The invention is not limited to the exact details shown and described, for variations obvious to one skilled in the art will be included within the invention defined by the claims. The invention illustratively disclosed herein suitably may be practiced, in some embodiments, in the absence of any element which is not specifically disclosed herein.

Claims

116. (canceled)

17. A method of making a multistage latex polymer, the method comprising:

preparing a first mixture of monomers for a first stage, the first mixture comprising about 94 to 98 wt % methyl methacrylate, 1 to 3 wt % methacrylic acid, about 1 to 3 wt % ureido-functional monomer, and optionally, about 1 to 3 wt % acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate, based on the total weight of the monomers in the first mixture;
preparing a second mixture of monomers for a second stage, the second mixture comprising about 30 to 40 wt % methyl methacrylate, about 50 to 60 wt % butyl acrylate, about 1 to 3% methacrylic acid, about 1 to 5 wt % acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate, and about 1 to 3 wt % ureido-functional monomers, based on the total weight of the monomers in the second mixture;
feeding the first mixture into a reactor vessel;
initiating a free radical polymerization of at least the first mixture; and
feeding the second mixture into the reactor vessel,
wherein the multistage latex has at least two distinct theoretical Tg values.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the multistage latex is capable of forming a film at a temperature of 4° C. or less.

19. The method of claim 17, wherein the multistage latex is capable of forming a film at a temperature of 10° C. or less, in the absence of a separate coalescing agent.

20. The method of claim 17, wherein the composition further includes up to about 2 wt % coalescing agent, and is capable of forming a film at a temperature of 20° C. or less.

21. The method of claim 17, wherein the monomers forming the first stage or second stage comprise one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, C1-Cesters of acrylic acid, substituted C1-Cesters of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, C1-Cester of methacrylic acid, substituted C1-Cesters of methacrylic acid, styrene, α-methyl styrene, vinyl toluene, vinyl acetate, vinyl propionate, allyl methacrylate, and mixtures thereof.

22. The method of claim 17, wherein the monomers forming the first stage or second stage further comprise one or more ureido-functional monomers.

23. The method of claim 17, wherein the monomers forming the first stage or second stage further comprise one or more polyfunctional acrylate monomers.

24. The method of claim 17, wherein the difference in Tg of the first and second stage monomers is at least about 65° C.

25. The method of claim 17, wherein the composition exhibits block resistance rating of at least 6.

26. The method of claim 17, wherein the composition exhibits tack resistance of up to about 3 s.

27. The method of claim 17, wherein the composition is capable of forming a film at temperature of less than about 15° C.

28. The method of claim 17, wherein the colorant comprises:

a colorant component;
a surfactant package comprising at least one latex-compatible surfactant; and
a carrier,
wherein the colorant has less than about 20 g/L VOC.

29. The method of claim 17, wherein the composition comprises about 0.1 to 0.3 wt % fluorosurfactant, based on the total weight of the composition.