The UV-curable urethane acrylate oligomers modified with cycloaliphatic epoxide resin, including polyether-modified cycloaliphatic polyurethane acrylate (CE-MP-UA) and oleic acid-modified cycloaliphatic polyurethane acrylate (CE-OA-UA), have successfully been synthesized and characterized by 1HNMR and FTIR. The kinetics of the synthesis processes are studied in this paper. The effects of the molecular structure of the oligomers on the properties of cured film, including pencil hardness, impact resistance, adhesion and boiling water resistance, are discussed in detail. The experimental results indicate that the films formed by CE-OA-MP oligomers show good comprehensive performance, especially good adhesion and boiling water resistance due to the numerous hydroxyl groups, flexible segment and alicyclic structure of the oligomers. The results reveal that the alicyclic structure in the oligomer molecular make-up can effectively improve the adhesion of UV-curable coatings.