Application Number: 15656010 Application Date: 21.07.2017
Publication Number: 20180022954 Publication Date: 25.01.2018
Publication Kind : A1
IPC:
C09D 133/12
C08L 33/12
Applicants: Rohm and Haas Company
Dow Global Technologies LLC
Inventors: Matthew Belowich
Meghan Koback
Jordan Stracke
Joseph Tanzer
Priority Data:
Title: (EN) PROCESS FOR PREPARING LATEX FUNCTIONALIZED WITH PHOSPHORUS ACID AND PHOTOINITIATOR GROUPS
Abstract:

(EN)

The present invention is a process for preparing a stable aqueous dispersion of polymer particles comprising structural units of a phosphorus acid monomer or a salt thereof and structural units of a photoinitiator monomer. Gloss retention of paints containing the latex prepared by the process of the present invention are improved over paints that do not have photoinitiator chemically bound to the latex particles.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

      The present invention addresses a need in the field of exterior coatings by providing a process comprising forming, by way of multistage emulsion polymerization, a stable aqueous dispersion of acrylic-based polymer particles functionalized with from 0.2 to 5 weight percent structural units of a phosphorus acid monomer and from 0.05 to 10 weight percent structural units of a photoinitiator monomer based on the weight of the polymer particles, which structural units of the phosphorus acid monomer and the photoinitator monomer arise from copolymerization of a phosphorus acid monomer and a photoinitiator monomer in the same stage.
      The process of the present invention provides a latex that improves gloss in a paint composition over an extended period of time without the VOC, toxicity, and regulatory issues associated with benzophenone.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

      The present invention is a process comprising forming, by way of multistage emulsion polymerization, a stable aqueous dispersion of acrylic-based polymer particles functionalized with from 0.2 to 5 weight percent structural units of a phosphorus acid monomer and from 0.05 to 10 weight percent structural units of a photoinitiator monomer based on the weight of the polymer particles, which structural units of the phosphorus acid monomer and the photoinitator monomer arise from copolymerization of a phosphorus acid monomer and a photoinitiator monomer in the same stage.
      As used herein, the term “acrylic-based polymer particles” refers to polymer particles (including seed polymer particles) that comprise at least 30 weight percent, based on the weight of the polymer particles, structural units of methacrylate and or acrylate monomers. Preferably, the acrylic based polymer particles comprise structural units of one or more methacrylate monomers such as methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, and ureido methacrylate; and one or more acrylate monomers such as ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, 2-propylheptyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate. The acrylic-based polymers may also include structural units of other monomers such as styrene.
      As used herein, the term “structural unit” of the named monomer refers to the remnant of the monomer after polymerization. For example, a structural unit of methyl methacrylate is as illustrated:

 where the dotted lines represent the points of attachment of the structural unit to the polymer backbone.

      The polymer particles preferably comprise, based on the weight of the polymer particles, from 40 to 50 weight percent structural units of methyl methacrylate or styrene; from 23, more preferably from 25 weight percent to 33, more preferably to 30 weight percent structural units of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate; from 15 to 25 weight percent structural units of butyl acrylate; from 0.1, more preferably from 0.5 weight percent to 5, more preferably to 3, and most preferably to 2 weight percent structural units of ureido methacrylate; and from 0.05 to 2 weight percent structural units of methacrylic acid or acrylic acid or a salt thereof.
      The polymer particles further comprise, based on the weight of the polymer particles, from 0.05, preferably from 0.1, more preferably from 0.2, and most preferably from 0.5 weight percent, to 10, preferably to 5, and more preferably to 3 weight percent structural units of the photoinitiator monomer; and from 0.2, preferably from 0.5, more preferably from 0.8 weight percent, to 5, preferably 3, more preferably to 2 weight percent structural units of the phosphorus acid monomer, based on the weight of the polymer particles.
      The multistage latex is preferably prepared in two stages. In a first stage, an aqueous dispersion of first polymer particles is preferably prepared by emulsion polymerization of monomers comprising a) methyl methacrylate or styrene or a combination thereof, preferably methyl methacrylate; b) one or more acrylates selected from the group consisting of ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, 2-propylheptyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, preferably a combination of butyl acrylate and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate; c) a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, or itaconic acid, or a salt thereof. The kettle may optionally be buffered prior to or during the initiation of polymerization with a suitable base such as a dilute aqueous solution of Na2CO3.
      The second stage also preferably comprises methyl methacrylate (and/or styrene), one or more of the aforementioned acrylates, and the carboxylic acid monomer. It has also been found advantageous to include a ureido functionalized monomer such as ureido methacrylate at a concentration preferably in the range of from 0.2, more preferably from 0.5 weight percent, to preferably 10, more preferably to 5, and most preferably to 3 weight percent, based on the weight of second stage monomers.
      A photoinitiator monomer and a phosphorus acid monomer are staged together, either in the first or the second stage, more preferably in the first stage. It is possible to include either or both of the photoinitiator monomer and the phosphorus acid monomer in more than one stage provided both monomers are copolymerized in the same stage. For example, if the photoinitiator monomer and phosphorus acid monomer are copolymerized in the first stage of a 2-stage emulsion polymerization reaction, it is possible to include either or both of the photoinitiator monomer and the phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage. Preferably, if both the photoinitiator monomer and the phosphorus acid monomer are copolymerized in the first stage, the second stage optionally includes the photoinitiator monomer or the phosphorus acid monomer or both, with the proviso that the ratio of photoinitiator monomer in the first stage to photoinitiator monomer in the second stage is greater than 2:1, preferably greater than 5:1, more preferably greater than 10:1, and most preferably greater than 100:1 and the ratio of phosphorus acid monomer in the first stage to phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage is greater than 2:1 preferably greater than 5:1, more preferably greater than 10:1, and most preferably greater than 100:1. Most preferably, if the first stage monomers comprise the photoinitiator monomer and the phosphorus acid monomer, the second stage monomers comprise no amounts of these monomers.
      Similarly, if both the photoinitiator monomer and the phosphorus acid monomer are copolymerized in the second stage, the first stage optionally includes the photoinitiator monomer or the phosphorus acid monomer or both, with the proviso that the ratio of photoinitiator monomer in the second stage to photoinitiator monomer in the first stage is greater than 2:1, preferably greater than 5:1, more preferably greater than 10:1, and most preferably greater than 100:1 and the ratio of phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage to phosphorus acid monomer in the first stage is greater than 2:1 preferably greater than 5:1, more preferably greater than 10:1, and most preferably greater than 100:1.
      Though not bound by theory, it is believed that copolymerizing the phosphorus acid monomer and the photoinitiator monomer in the same stage provides a mechanism for the functionalized photoinitiator groups to be advantageously situated on the surface of the latex particles; such surface functionalization provides accessibility to UV light, which causes crosslinking promoted by the photoinitiator groups, thereby imparting the advantageous gloss retention and improved dirt pick-up resistance.
      Examples of suitable phosphorus acid monomers include phosphonates and dihydrogen phosphate esters of an alcohol in which the alcohol contains or is substituted with a polymerizable vinyl or olefinic group. Preferred dihydrogen phosphate esters are phosphates of hydroxyalkyl acrylates or methacrylates, including phosphoethyl methacrylate (PEM) and phosphopropyl methacrylates. PEM, which is an especially preferred phosphorus acid monomer, is represented by the following structure:

 where R is H or

      As used herein, the term “photoinitiator monomer” refers to a compound with benzoyl functionality and an ethylenically unsaturated group that is capable of polymerizing in an emulsion polymerization reaction. A class of compounds with benzoyl functionality and ethylenic unsaturation is a polymerizable class of compounds illustrated as follows:

where j is 0, 1, 2, or 3; k is 0, 1, or 2; each Rand Rare independently C1-C6-alkyl, CF3, OH, NH2, COOH, or COOCH3; or Rand R2, together with the carbon atom to which they are attached, form a bridging S, O, NH, or NHgroup; and Y is an organic hydrocarbon-containing radical optionally comprising at least one O, N, or S heteroatom, which radical further comprises an unsaturated substituent that is copolymerizable with an acrylic, methacrylic, styrene, or vinyl ester monomer.

      Another class of suitable photoinitiator monomers is illustrated as follows:

      Where each Ris independently CF3, C1-C6-alkyl, —O—C1-Calkyl, —COO—C1-C6-alkyl, halo, CN, COOH, or OH; X is C1-C6-alkyl; Z is an acrylate or methacrylate functionalized group.
      Preferably, Z is characterized by the following formula:

where A is O or NR3; n is 0 or 1; p is 1 to 12; and each Ris independently H or CH3.

      Examples of specific photoinitiator monomers are illustrated below:

      In one embodiment, the weight-to-weight ratio of the first stage to the second stage is preferably in the range of 10:90 to 70:30, more preferably from 20:80 to 50:50; and most preferably from 25:75 to 40:60. In another embodiment, the weight-to-weight ratio of the second stage to the first stage is preferably in the range of 10:90 to 70:30, more preferably from 20:80 to 50:50; and most preferably from 25:75 to 40:60. Preferably, each stage comprises, from 20 to 30 weight percent structural units of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, from 15 to 25 weight percent structural units of butyl acrylate, from 40 to 50 weight percent structural units of methyl methacrylate, from 0.4 to 1.2 weight percent structural units of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid. It is preferred that the phosphorus acid monomer and the photoinitiator monomer are copolymerized in a stage that contains less than 50% total monomer. For example, in a 2-staged emulsion polymerization reaction with a 30:70 weight-to-weight ratio of first to second stage monomer, it is preferred that the phosphorus acid monomer and the photoinitiator monomer be copolymerized in the first stage; where the ratio is 70:30, it is preferred that they be copolymerized in the second stage.
      The aqueous dispersion of polymer particles is useful as a binder in paint formulations. Accordingly, in another aspect, the composition of the present invention further includes one or more materials selected from the group consisting of pigments, thickeners, dispersants, surfactants, coalescing agents, defoamers, adhesion promoters, biocides, and neutralizing agents.
      It has surprisingly been discovered that gloss retention of paints containing the latex described herein is markedly improved over paints that do not have photoinitiator chemically bound to the latex particles. The paints are further advantaged by the absence of any leaching of the photoinitiator, decreased toxicity, and lower VOC than paints containing benzophenone.
      The composition of the present invention is combined with other materials to make a paint and then tested for gloss retention.

Example 1—Preparation of 2-Stage Latex: Photoinitiator Monomer and Phosphorus Acid Monomer Added in the First Stage

      A first monomer emulsion was prepared by mixing deionized water (195 g), Disponil FES-993 surfactant (29.2 g, 30% active), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (155.0 g), butyl acrylate (99.4 g), methyl methacrylate (227.2 g), phosphoethyl methacrylate (39.2 g, 60% active), methacrylic acid (4.6 g), and 2-hydroxy-3-(methacryloyloxy)propyl 2-benzoylbenzoate (38.3 g). To a 5-L, four-necked round bottom flask equipped with a paddle stirrer, a thermometer, nitrogen inlet, and a reflux condenser was added deionized water (929.2 g) and Disponil FES-32 surfactant (11.2 g, 31% active). The contents of the flask were heated to 83° C. under Nand stirring was initiated.
      A portion of the first monomer emulsion (112 g) was then added followed by a rinse of deionized water (40 g). A solution of ammonium persulfate (3.76 g) dissolved in deionized water (20 g) was added to the flask followed by a rinse of deionized water (5 g). After the maximum exotherm was observed, the remainder of the first monomer emulsion was added at a constant rate over 30 min while maintaining the temperature at 85° C. Simultaneously, 30% of an initiator solution of ammonium persulfate (3.49 g) in deionized water (85 g) was added separately over 30 min. Once the first monomer emulsion was fed, the flask containing the first monomer emulsion was rinsed with deionized water (30 g) and addition of the initiator solution was stopped. The reaction contents were held at 85° C. for 15 min. Meanwhile, a second monomer emulsion was prepared by mixing deionized water (337 g), Disponil FES-32 surfactant (36.0 g, 31% active), 2-ethylhexylacrylate (361.8 g), butyl acrylate (235.6 g), methyl methacrylate (706.8 g), methacrylic acid (10.7 g), and ureido-methacrylate (24.9 g). Ammonium hydroxide (13.9 g, 30% active) was added to the initiator solution followed by a rinse of deionized water (23.0 g). After the 15 min hold, the second monomer emulsion and the remainder of the initiator solution were added linearly and separately over 80 min while maintaining the temperature at 85° C. Once the feeds were complete, the monomer emulsion tank and the initiator solution were rinsed with deionized water (75 g and 5 g, respectively). The contents of the flask were cooled to 65° C. and a catalyst/activator pair was added to the flask to reduce residual monomer. The polymer was neutralized to pH 8.5 with ammonium hydroxide (30% active). The measured particle size using a Brookhaven BI 90 Plus particle analyzer was 110-130 nm, and the solid content was 50%.

Example 2—Preparation of 2-Stage Latex: Photoinitiator Monomer and Phosphorus Acid Monomer Added in the Second Stage

      A first monomer emulsion was prepared by mixing deionized water (307 g), Disponil FES-32 surfactant (20.5 g, 31% active), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (206.7 g), butyl acrylate (139.8 g), methyl methacrylate (415.2 g), and methacrylic acid (3.8 g). To a 5-L, four necked round bottom flask equipped with a paddle stirrer, a thermometer, nitrogen inlet, and a reflux condenser was added deionized water (929.2 g) and Disponil FES-32 surfactant (11.2 g, 31% active). The contents of the flask were heated to 83° C. under Nand stirring was initiated. A portion of the first monomer emulsion (112 g) was then added followed by a rinse of the flask with deionized water (40 g). A solution of ammonium persulfate (3.76 g) dissolved in deionized water (20 g) was added to the flask followed by a rinse of deionized water (5 g). After the maximum exotherm was observed, the remainder of the first monomer emulsion was added at a constant rate over 35 min while maintaining the reaction temperature at 85° C. Simultaneously, 42% of an initiator solution of ammonium persulfate (3.49 g) in deionized water (170 g) was added separately over 35 min. Once the first monomer emulsion was fed, the flask was rinsed with deionized water (30 g) and the initiator solution was stopped. The reaction contents were held at 85° C. for 15 min. Meanwhile, a second monomer emulsion was prepared by mixing deionized water (397 g), Disponil FES-993 surfactant (58.5 g, 30% active), 2-ethylhexylacrylate (310.1 g), butyl acrylate (195.2 g), methyl methacrylate (530.3 g), methacrylic acid (11.5 g), phosphoethyl methacrylate (39.2 g, 60% active), ureido-methacrylate (24.9 g), and 2-hydroxy-3-(methacryloyloxy)propyl 2-benzoylbenzoate (38.2 g). After the 15-min hold, the second monomer emulsion and the remainder of the initiator solution were added linearly and separately over 85 min while maintaining the temperature at 85° C. Once the feeds were complete, the monomer emulsion tank and the initiator solution were rinsed with deionized water (50 g and 5 g, respectively). The contents of the flask were cooled to 65° C. and a catalyst/activator pair was added to the flask to reduce residual monomer. The polymer was neutralized to pH 8.5 with ammonium hydroxide (30% active). The measured particle size using a Brookhaven BI 90 Plus particle analyzer was 110-130 nm, and the solid content was 48%.

Comparative Example 1—Preparation of 2-Stage Latex: Phosphorus Acid Monomer Added in the First Stage, No Addition of Photoinitiator Monomer

      The 2-stage polymer was prepared essentially as described in Example 1 except that no photoiniator monomer was used. The w/w stage ratio of the first stage to the second stage 30:70.
      The relative w/w amounts of monomers used to prepare the first stage was 27 2-EHA/19.3 BA/46.2 MMA/6.7 PEM (60% active)/and 0.8 MAA; and the relative w/w amounts of monomers used to prepare the second stage was 27 2-EHA/19.3 BA/50.8 MMA/1.9 UMA/and 0.8 MAA.
      2-EHA refers to 2-ethylhexyl acrylate; BA refers to butyl acrylate; MMA refers to methyl methacrylate; PEM refers to phosphoethyl methacrylate; UMA refers to ureido methacrylate; and MAA refers to methacrylic acid. Additionally, the Comparative Example 1 latex included 0.6% by weight benzophenone with respect to total solids in the latex. The experimental latexes were formulated into paint with other additives as illustrated in Table 1.
[TABLE-US-00001]

TABLE 1
Paint Formulation
Stage Material Wt (g) Wt (g) Wt (g)
Grind Water 50.00 49.96 50.0
TAMOL ™ 165A Dispersant 4.20 4.20 4.20
FoamStar A34 Defoamer 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ti-Pure R-746 Titanium Dioxide 237.43 237.43 237.40
ROCIMA ™ 63 Microbicide 11.00 11.00 11.00
Let- Example 1 latex 534.05
Down Example 2 latex 568.43
Comparative Example 1 latex 542.72
Optifilm Enhancer 400 Coalescent 9.13 9.20 9.23
Texanol Ester Alcohol Coalescent 6.98 7.03 7.06
Ammonia (28% in water) 0.40 0.40 0.50
ACRYSOL ™ RM-3000 11.08 11.57 13.00
Thickener
ACRYSOL ™ RM-8W 0.97 2.84 1.00
Thickener
Water 134.75 100.22 126.92
Total 1001.00 1003.29 1004.05
TAMOL, ROCIMA, and ACRYSOL are all Trademarks of The Dow Chemical Company or its Affiliates.

QUV Measurements

      The experimental paints were coated onto a substrate and subjected to accelerated weathering tests using the following procedure. Accelerated weathering was conducted using a QUV instrument according to the ASTM-D 4587, Standard Practice for Fluorescent UV-Condensation Exposures of Paint and Related Coatings. A cycle consisting of 8 h of UV exposure (0.89 W/m2) at 60° C. followed by 4 h of a dark condensation period at 50° C. Formulations were coated (15-mil thickness) onto chromate treated aluminum panels and cured for 7-d in a controlled environment room (25° C., 50% RH) before initiating QUV exposure. Gloss was measured using a BYK Gardner micro-TRI-gloss meter at intervals of 500, 1500, and 2000 hours of QUV exposure. The results for change in 60° Gloss are shown in Table 2. In the table, Δ60 Ex. 1 refers to the changes in 60° gloss for the coating prepared from the paint that included the Example 1 latex; Δ60 Ex. 2 refers to the changes in 60° gloss for the coating prepared from the paint that included the Example 2 latex; and Δ60Comp. Ex. 1 refers to the changes in 60° gloss for the coating prepared from the paint that included the Comparative Example 1 latex.
[TABLE-US-00002]

TABLE 2
Change in 60° Gloss units Upon QUV Accelerated Weathering
Exposure (h) 0 100 500 1500 2000
Δ60 Ex. 1 79 76 77 81 82
Δ60 Ex. 2 78 72 67 65 66
Δ60 Comp. Ex. 1 79 69 74 83 51
      The data demonstrate a pronounced loss in gloss at 2000 h for a coating derived from a paint that included free benzophenone as compared to one prepared from a paint containing a latex functionalized with chemically bound benzophenone groups. The results further demonstrate the advantages of copolymerizing PEM and the photoinitiator in the first stage of the latex.

Example 3—Preparation of 2-Stage Latex: Photoinitiator Monomer, Phosphorus Acid Monomer, and Ureido Methacrylate Added in the First Stage

      A first monomer emulsion was prepared by mixing deionized water (139 g), Disponil FES-993 surfactant (28.2 g, 30% active), 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (158.8 g), butyl acrylate (96.4 g), methyl methacrylate (230.2 g), phosphoethyl methacrylate (39.2 g, 60% active), methacrylic acid (4.7 g), and 2-hydroxy-3-(methacryloyloxy)propyl 2-benzoylbenzoate (72.6 g, 54% active). To a 5-L, four-necked round bottom flask equipped with a paddle stirrer, a thermometer, nitrogen inlet, and a reflux condenser was added deionized water (931 g) and Disponil FES-32 surfactant (11.9 g, 30% active). The contents of the flask were heated to 82° C. under Nand stirring was initiated. A portion of the first monomer emulsion (116.1 g) was then added followed by a rinse of deionized water (32 g). A solution of ammonium persulfate (4.0 g) dissolved in deionized water (26 g) was added to the flask. A solution of deionized water (15.0 g), Disponil FES-993 surfactant (3.0 g, 30% active), and ureido methacrylate (39.2 g, 50% active) was then added to the first monomer emulsion. After the maximum exotherm was observed, the remainder of the first monomer emulsion was added at a constant rate over 30 min while maintaining the temperature at 85° C. Simultaneously, 30% of an initiator solution of ammonium persulfate (3.7 g) in deionized water (118 g) was added separately over 30 min. Once the first monomer emulsion was fed, the flask containing the first monomer emulsion was rinsed with deionized water (15 g) and addition of the initiator solution was stopped. The reaction contents were held at 85° C. for 15 min. Meanwhile, a second monomer emulsion was prepared by mixing deionized water (398 g), Disponil FES-32 surfactant (39.4 g, 30% active), 2-ethylhexylacrylate (370.4 g), butyl acrylate (221.2 g), methyl methacrylate (769.4 g), methacrylic acid (11.0 g), and ammonium hydroxide (14.4 g, 29% active). After the 15 min hold, the second monomer emulsion and the remainder of the initiator solution were added linearly and separately over 80 min while maintaining the temperature at 85° C. Once the feeds were complete, the monomer emulsion tank and the initiator solution were rinsed with deionized water (30 g). The contents of the flask were cooled to 75° C. and a catalyst/activator pair was added to the flask to reduce residual monomer. The polymer was neutralized to pH 9.0 with ammonium hydroxide (29% aqueous solution). The measured particle size using a Brookhaven BI 90 Plus particle analyzer was 110-130 nm, and the solid content was 51%.

Example 4—Preparation of 2-Stage Latex: Photoinitiator Monomer and Phosphorus Acid Monomer in the First Stage

      The 2-stage polymer was prepared essentially as described in Example 3 except that no ureido methacrylate monomer was used. The w/w stage ratio of the first stage to the second stage 30:70. The relative w/w amounts of monomers used to prepare the first stage was 27.0 2-EHA/16.4 BA/39.2 MMA/6.7 PEM (60% active)/6.7 2-hydroxy-3-(methacryloyloxy)propyl 2-benzoylbenzoate/0.8 MAA; and the relative w/w amounts of monomers used to prepare the second stage was 27.0 2-EHA/16.12 BA/56.08 MMA/0.8 MAA.

Dirt Pick-Up Resistance Measurements

      Further experiments were carried out to demonstrate the effect of functionalizing the latex with ureido methacrylate on dirt pick-up resistance, as measured by Y-reflectance. A latex was prepared substantially as described in Example 1 except that the second stage monomer emulsion contained no ureido methacrylate. Paint compositions were prepared as described in Table 3 and substrates were coated with a paint containing the latex of Example 1 and one containing a similar latex that was not functionalized with ureido methacrylate. Paint formulations were drawn down over chromate-treated aluminum panels with a 5-mil applicator and were dried in a controlled environment room (25° C., 50% RH) overnight. Panels were then placed outside facing south at a 45° angle for 6 days. After outdoor exposure, initial Y-reflectance measurements were made. Next, samples were placed in a fog box for 1.5 h, and were then patted dry. A brown iron oxide slurry was brush applied, allowed to dry for 4 h, and was washed off under warm running water while rubbing with cheese cloth. After drying, final Y-reflectance values were measured. The retained Y-reflectance is equal to the final Y-reflectance divided by the initial Y-reflectance multiplied by 100%. Y-reflectance measurements were made using a BYK Gardner color-guide 45/0 meter. The brown iron oxide slurry was prepared by dispersing Davis Colors 641 Brown Iron Oxide (125 g) in water (250 g) and TAMOL™ 731A Dispersant (0.1 g). Retained Y-reflectance was found to be 95.7% for the paint containing the Example 1 latex and 93.2% for the paint containing the latex not functionalized with ureido methacrylate. The results, shown in Table 3, demonstrate that inclusion of ureido methacrylate in the polymer latex has a positive effect on dirt pick-up resistance.
[TABLE-US-00003]

TABLE 3
0 VOC Paint Formulations
Material Wt (g) Wt (g)
Water 67.36 67.19
Ti-Pure R-746 Titanium Dioxide 129.19 129.19
Example 1 latex 285.63
Example 1 latex without ureido 285.46
methacrylate
BYK-348 Surfactant 1.10 1.10
Rhodoline 643 Defoamer 1.50 1.50
Optifilm Enhancer 400 Coalescent 11.67 11.67
Ammonia (28% in water) 0.70 0.52
ACRYSOL ™ RM-2020NPR 9.00 9.00
Thickener
ACRYSOL ™ RM-8W 0.70 0.70
Thickener
Water 0.30 0.48
Total 507.15 506.81

Claims

1. A process comprising forming, by way of multistage emulsion polymerization, a stable aqueous dispersion of acrylic-based polymer particles functionalized with from 0.2 to 5 weight percent structural units of a phosphorus acid monomer and from 0.05 to 10 weight percent structural units of a photoinitiator monomer based on the weight of the polymer particles, which structural units of the phosphorus acid monomer and the photoinitator monomer arise from copolymerization of a phosphorus acid monomer and a photoinitiator monomer in the same stage.

2. The process of claim 1 wherein the multistage emulsion polymerization is a 2-stage reaction, wherein first stage monomers comprise the photoinitiator monomer; the phosphorus acid monomer; methyl methacrylate or styrene or a combination thereof; one or more acrylates selected from the group consisting of ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, 2-propylheptyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate; and a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, are copolymerized in a first stage;

wherein methyl methacrylate or styrene or a combination thereof; one or more acrylates selected from the group consisting of ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, 2-propylheptyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate; and a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof, are copolymerized in a second stage;
wherein the second stage optionally includes the photoinitiator monomer or the phosphorus acid monomer or both, with the proviso that the ratio of photoinitator monomer in the first stage to photoinitiator monomer in the second stage is greater than 2:1, and the ratio of phosphorus acid monomer in the first stage to phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage is greater than 2:1;
wherein ratio of stage one monomers to stage two monomers is in the range of 20:80 to 50:50.

3. The process of claim 2 wherein in the first stage, from 0.1 to 5 weight percent of the photoinitiator monomer, from 0.5 to 3 weight percent of the phosphorus acid monomer, from 40 to 50 weight percent methyl methacrylate, from 15 to 25 weight percent butyl acrylate, from 23 to 33 weight percent 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and 0.05 to 2 weight percent methacrylic acid or a salt thereof, are copolymerized, wherein all weights are based on the weight of first stage monomers;

wherein in the second stage, from 40 to 50 weight percent methyl methacrylate, from 15 to 25 weight percent butyl acrylate, from 23 to 33 weight percent 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, from 0.05 to 2 weight percent methacrylic acid or a salt thereof, wherein all weights are based on the weight of second stage monomers;
wherein from 0.2 to 5 weight percent ureido methacrylate is copolymerized in either the first or the second stage;
wherein the second stage monomers optionally include the photoinitiator monomer or the phosphorus acid monomer or both, with the proviso that the ratio of photoinitiator monomer in the first stage to photoinitiator monomer in the second stage is greater than 10:1, and the ratio of phosphorus acid monomer in the first stage to phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage is greater than 10:1.

4. The process of claim 3 wherein ratio of stage one monomers to stage two monomers is in the range of 25:75 to 40:60, the ratio of photoinitiator monomer in the first stage to photoinitiator monomer in the second stage is greater than 100:1, and the ratio of phosphorus acid monomer in the first stage to phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage is greater than 100:1.

5. The process of claim 4 wherein the second stage monomers comprise no photoinitiator monomer or phosphorus acid monomer.

6. The process of claim 1 wherein the multistage emulsion polymerization is a 2-stage reaction, wherein first stage monomers comprise methyl methacrylate or styrene or a combination thereof; one or more acrylates selected from the group consisting of ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, 2-propylheptyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate; and a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof are copolymerized in a first stage;

wherein the photoinitiator monomer; the phosphorus acid monomer; methyl methacrylate or styrene or a combination thereof; one or more acrylates selected from the group consisting of ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, 2-propylheptyl acrylate, and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate; and a carboxylic acid monomer or a salt thereof are copolymerized in a second stage; and
wherein the first stage optionally includes the photoinitiator monomer or the phosphorus acid monomer or both, with the proviso that the ratio of photoinitator monomer in the first stage to photoinitiator monomer in the second stage is greater than 2:1, and the ratio of phosphorus acid monomer in the first stage to phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage is greater than 2:1.

7. The process of claim 6 wherein in the first stage, from 40 to 50 weight percent methyl methacrylate, from 15 to 25 weight percent butyl acrylate, from 23 to 33 weight percent 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, and 0.05 to 2 weight percent methacrylic acid or a salt thereof, all weights based on the weight of first stage monomers, are copolymerized;

wherein in the second stage, from 0.1 to 5 weight percent of the photoinitiator monomer, from 0.5 to 3 weight percent of the phosphorus acid monomer, from 40 to 50 weight percent methyl methacrylate, from 15 to 25 weight percent butyl acrylate, from 23 to 33 weight percent 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, from 0.05 to 2 weight percent methacrylic acid or a salt thereof;
wherein the first stage monomers optionally include the photoinitiator monomer or the phosphorus acid monomer or both, with the proviso that the ratio of photoinitiator monomer in the second stage to photoinitiator monomer in the first stage is greater than 10:1 and the ratio of phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage to phosphorus acid monomer in the first stage is greater than 10:1;
wherein from 0.2 to 5 weight percent ureido methacrylate is copolymerized in either the first or the second stage; and
wherein the ratio of stage two monomers to stage one monomers is in the range of 20:80 to 50:50.

8. The process of claim 7 wherein ratio of stage one monomers to stage two monomers is in the range of 25:75 to 40:60, the ratio of photoinitiator monomer in the first stage to photoinitiator monomer in the second stage is greater than 100:1, and the ratio of phosphorus acid monomer in the first stage to phosphorus acid monomer in the second stage is greater than 100:1.

9. The process of claim 7 wherein the first stage monomers comprise no photoinitiator monomer or phosphorus acid monomer.
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